Early Kodak Ektachrome Colour Transparency films - researched by Michael Talbert

Index to this web page:
Michael Talbert
has also provided a considerable amount of historical information on the early Kodak print films: Kodacolor, Ektacolor and Vericolor, plus their printing processes.
Also, see his research on early Agfa colour print materials.
  1. Before Ektachrome Transparency Slide Film; Kodacolor Aero Reversible Film
  2. Early Ektachrome Film, from 1946
    Boxes of Ektachrome Sheet Film, early 1950s
    Prices of Ektachrome Sheet Film in the UK in 1950
    Ektachrome Exposure
    Ektachrome Processing

    1947 Processing sequence
  3. 1954 Processing Sequence ~ Process E-1 from 1955
    Boxes of Ektachrome Process E1 film, late 1950s
    Box of Ektachrome Process E1 film ~ 6102
    Exposure of Ektachrome Type B Process E1 film using the supplementary data sheet
  4. 1955 ~ Process E-2 ~ Daylight Films
    Ektachrome Process E2 ~ Type F Film
    1959 ~ Improved E-2 Films and Processing
    Process E2 'Improved Type' Procedure
    High Speed Ektachrome Film
    E2 Formulae from the British Journal of Photography Annual 1980
  5. 1959 to 1977 ~ Process E-3
    Two Very Early Ektachrome Process E3 Film Boxes
    Processing Procedure for E-3
    Ektachrome E3 Daylight Type Sheet Film ~ 6115
    Ektachrome E3 Artificial Light Type B Sheet Film for 3200°K lamps
  6. Process E-4 ~ Ektachrome Daylight and Tungsten sheet films, SO-371 and SO-375
    Processing Procedure for E-4 (i) commercial size and (ii) amateur
    Storage Life of Solutions
  7. Process E-6
    Processing Procedure for E-6
  8. Processing Out-of-Date E-2 (and E-3 / E-4) films
  1. Kodak Reversal Color Print Material
    Type R Paper from 1955 (becoming Ektachrome Paper in 1958)
    Processing Type R Paper, using Kodak Color Print Process P-111, from 1955
    Kodak Ektachrome Paper, from 1958
    Availability of Kodak Ektachrome Paper in the USA in 1960

    Processing Ektachrome Paper using Ektaprint R, from 1965
    Ektachrome RC Paper, from 1969

    Processing Ektachrome & Ektachrome RC Papers using Kodak 11 & 16 Rapid Processors, 1965 to 1973
    Processing Ektachrome RC Paper using Ektaprint R, 1969 to 1973
    Ektachrome RC Paper Type 1993 (in the USA from 1973)
    Processing Type 1993 using Ektaprint R-5, from 1973

    Ektachrome 14RC Paper, from 1972
    Processing Ektachrome 14RC Paper using Ektaprint R14, from 1974

    Ektachrome 14RC Type 5262 Paper, from 1976
    Processing Ektachrome 14RC Paper Type 5262

    Processing Ektachrome 14RC Paper Type 5262 in Ektaprint R14, from 1978
    Ektachrome 19 Paper, from 1980

    Ektachrome 22 Paper, from 1984
    Processing Ektachrome 14RC Type 5262 and Ektachrome 19 Papers in Ektaprint R-3 from 1980
  2. Experiences of Printing on Ektachrome RC Paper
  3. Duplicating Transparencies
    Kodachrome as a Duplicating Film, from 1941, posssibly 1938
    Duplicating Transparencies by the Unsharp Mask Technique
    Early Ektachrome Duplicating Materials
  4. Ektachrome Duplicating Film, from 1967
    Ektachrome Duplicating Film 6119 from 1969
    Ektachrome Duplicating Film 6119 in use
    Lowering the Contrast by “Flashing”
    Lowering the Contrast by Chemical Means
    Processing the Duplicates
  5. Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6120 from 1971
    Duplicating Film 6120, In Use
    Duplicating Film 6120, Exposure Times
    Duplicating Film 6120, Filtration Techniques
  6. Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6121 from 1977
    Ektachrome Duplicating Film Type K, 7121 from early 1990s
Charlie Kamerman has recently (February 2012) sent me some pictures of items within his amazing collection of early Kodak films. Charlie says "I have hundreds of boxes of film from 1891 through the 1980's."
To view just a few, please click here.
And do take a look at Charlie's site www.Kodakcollector.com


Before Ektachrome Transparency Slide Film
Kodacolor Aero Reversible Film

In 1939, Vittum and Jelly, of Eastman Kodak, discovered a type of colour coupler which, unlike the Kodachrome developer couplers, could be combined with the three emulsion layers of a colour film. The new couplers were incorporated into a resinous binder. They were known as “Protected Couplers”, as they were carried in small particles of organic materials which protected them from any reactions of the silver bromide emulsions. The colour couplers were then within the emulsion but not in complete physical contact with it.

Like Agfa’s Agfacolor Neu film of 1936, any colour material, film or paper, having the colour couplers combined with the three emulsion layers at the time of manufacture, could be processed in a much simpler, and much faster, manner than that of Kodachrome. Only one colour developer and one bleach bath were required.

The first film manufactured by Eastman Kodak containing “Protected Couplers” was Kodacolor Aero Reversible Film in 1940.
Despite the name “Kodacolor”, the film produced a transparency after processing, and bore no relationship, apart from the colour couplers, to the eventual Kodacolor negative film. Kodacolor Aero was mainly used by the United States Army Air Force for reconnaissance purposes, the special feature of this film was that it could be processed anywhere without elaborate equipment.

The processing sequence and chemical baths for Kodacolor Aero Reversible film were not unlike the processing procedure and baths for the earliest type of Kodak Ektachrome sheet films. Kits of chemicals for making up the five processing baths were available. The procedure was much like Process E1 but with longer times, very likely at 68°F (20°C). The time taken to process the film, not including drying, was around 90 minutes.

It was probably about 6 to 10 ASA and had a high contrast.

Two sets of filters were supplied with the film, one filter to correct for the various emulsion differences, and to balance it for average daylight. The other filter, or filters, were to correct for “haze”, or blueishness in distant subjects. The “Haze” filters were likely to have been, “Wratten Filter No.1”, and “Wratten Filter No.2A”, 2A being slightly stronger.

It was replaced, or renamed, ”Ektachrome Aero film – High contrast”, possibly in 1946.

Early Ektachrome Film, from 1946

Ektachrome film was first introduced in sheet film format in 1946. Based on the earlier Kodacolor aero film, Ektachrome had a much lower contrast and was obtainable in a Daylight balanced film and an artificial light balanced film. The artificial light type film was known as 'Type B', balanced for 3200°K lamps (see picture, below). The Daylight film had a speed of 8ASA (ISO), and the Type B film was rated at 10ASA (ISO). Both versions were designed for processing by the photographer in the “Ektachrome Processing Kit”. There are reports of Ektachrome film being processed in “Kodacolor Aero Reversible film” chemical kits, but the first developer had to be substituted for another type. One report states that the Kodacolor Aero kit gave “bright, contrasty transparencies with slight blueness in the shadows” on Ektachrome film.

About a year later, a daylight type roll film was put on the market. The emulsion was exactly the same as the daylight sheet film. It was supplied in 620 and 120 sizes and the data sheet warns “It cannot be used satisfactorily in box or other simple cameras”. It’s speed to daylight exposures was 8 ASA, but Michael Talbert has seen where some sources mention a speed of 6ASA. It has also been reported that Kodak reduced the speed by one third of a stop for the daylight film in 1948, due to a re-assessment of the film’s capabilities. The actual film was not changed. However, Michael can find no evidence of this appearing in the official Eastman Kodak data sheets for the daylight type film.

Both films were “code notched” for identification in the dark. It was not possible to use a safelight; both films had to be handled in total darkness. The daylight film had one notch cut into the edge of the film and the Type B film had two notches.

It was possible to expose the Type B film to daylight using a Kodak Wratten filter No. 85B on the lens. The speed of the film then dropped to 6ASA. Flash exposures, with clear flashbulbs, were made with a Kodak Wratten filter No. CC95 and the instruction sheet gives tables listing various guide numbers for average and large reflectors when using clear flashbulbs.

From 1946, both types of sheet film were packed in boxes of 12 sheets. This quantity may have been changed to 10 sheets per box as from the early 1950s. Included in the earlier boxes of 12 sheets were 12 “Kodapak” transparency sleeves. When each sheet of Ektachrome film had been processed and dried, the finished transparency was inserted into a “Kodapak” sleeve for ease of handling to prevent fingerprints while also protecting the transparency from scratches.



Above can be seen an original box of Ektachrome Type B film, size quarter plate, possibly manufactured in early 1947. This film is marked "Dev. before February 1948". It has a speed of 10 ASA (ISO), to artificial light. It was a rare find on the American e-bay site.

Michael comments "Ektachrome was first marketed in 1946, so they don’t come much older than this box. It’s been opened and six sheets used, but luckily the instruction sheet was still in the box! It’s dated October 1946 and lists the film speed at 10ASA for 3200°K lamps and 6ASA to daylight exposures with a Wratten filter No. 85B".

   
Boxes of Ektachrome Sheet Film, early 1950s  

A box of very early Ektachrome sheet film for Daylight exposure.
Printed on the rear of the box is: ”Develop before SEPT 1951”.

To the left of the box is a folder of “Kodapak” transparent sleeves. All boxes of Ektachrome film at that time contained transparent sleeves to protect the processed film.

“D 12” written on the box refers to the speed to daylight i.e. 12 ASA (ISO).

Was the $8.80 written on the box the actual purchase price at the time (around 1950)? Possibly it was. A box of identical Ektachrome Process E3 film cost $8.65 in 1973, but this didn't include state taxes.

   


Two Ektachrome 4 x 5 inch sheet film boxes dating from the early 1950s (perhaps 1951 and 1953). The Daylight film on the right is dated “Dev. Before August 1952”, and the Type B film is dated “July 1954”. Type B film was balanced for 3200 °Kelvin studio lamps. During 1951, Eastman Kodak introduced the familiar blue printing for Ektachrome film, replacing the previous black type as shown on the Ektachrome film box pictured above, dated “Develop before SEPT 1951”.

By 1953 the transparency sleeves were no longer packed in the Ektachrome film boxes. Both these boxes of film were manufactured at Rochester, New York, by the Eastman Kodak Company. It is possible that the films were manufactured 10 months to a year before their expiry dates.

Enclosed in the Ektachrome Type B box was the main instruction sheet, dated December 1952, stating the speed of the film as 10 ASA (ISO), for an exposure time of 1 second. Also enclosed in the box was a supplementary data sheet giving information on exposure times of 10 seconds and 120 seconds. These supplementary data sheets are believed to have first been enclosed in the boxes of Ektachrome Type B film in 1949. The supplementary data sheet applies to film with emulsion numbers of 6102-537-1 to 3, and 6102-537-61 to 63.

This particular batch of film turns cyan as the exposure time is increased, and a CC05R (a 5 Red filter), is advised with exposure times of about 10 seconds, with an exposure increase of ½ stop over the normal exposure time of 1 second. For a 120 second exposure time, a CC10R (a 10 Red filter), is advised with an exposure increase of 2½ stops over the normal exposure time of 1 second. The red notice printed on the box states: ”Please see revised processing time adjustments on the reverse side of enclosed data sheet”.

The capacity of the Ektachrome processing solutions, to become known collectively as the E1 process in 1955, was increased from 10 square feet of film per gallon to 15 square feet per gallon, and the reverse side of the data sheet gives new development times for the First Developer and the Colour Developer at 75°F for capacities from 1 square foot to 15 square feet of film processed per gallon.


Prices of Ektachrome Sheet Film in the U.K. in 1950
In the “Amateur Photographer“ magazine for April 19th 1950 “George Childe Ltd.” of Leeds takes a half page spread to advertise 'for sale' an assortment of black and white printing papers and various gadgets, books, and materials for colour photography. Listed for sale is “Ektachrome Cut Film, Type B” in 3¼ x 2¼ inches, and 4¼ x 3¼ inches in boxes of 12 sheets.

The 3¼ x 2¼ is for sale at £1.16s.5d (£1.82p) per box. The 4¼ x 3¼ is for sale at £2.10s.11d (£2.54p) per box. These prices did not include the cost of processing the film. It is very likely that this is “in date” film.

In 1950, a box of black and white sheet film, such as Kodak Super XX, size 4¼ x 3¼ inches, would have cost about 14 shillings (70p) for a 24 sheet box. Glass Plates, packed in boxes of 12, were usually slightly more expensive.

In the same advertisement are “Ektachrome Processing Outfits” for sale at £1.10s.0d each (£1.50 ) but it does not say what size of outfit or how many films can be processed in each outfit.

Kodachrome Professional sheet film was withdrawn from sale in May 1951, and was no longer manufactured. The processing service for this film was discontinued on 31st, July 1952

Picture of an early Kodak “Ektachrome/Kodachrome Professional Films“ data book.

An Eastman Kodak Data book containing information on storage, processing, make-up for models, exposure, and many data sheets. Gives more information on Ektachrome sheet film than on Kodachrome sheet film.

This is the First Edition, Second Printing, published in March 1948. The First Edition, First Printing, was published in 1947, but Michael believes there is very little difference between the two books.

Ektachrome Exposure
Eastman Kodak recommended “Expose for the highlights and light the shadows” when exposing Ektachrome films. The instruction sheet contained a table of shutter speeds and apertures for general exposure of the daylight type Ektachrome.

The instruction sheet and data sheet for the 'Type B' film included an exposure table for exposures to 3200°K lamps with subject to lamp distances ranging from 5feet to 20feet (6.1m).

It is interesting to note that neither the instruction sheet nor the data sheet for the earliest made Ektachrome Type B film included any reference to increasing the exposure over a certain exposure time length due to Reciprocity Failure effects. The book “Ektachrome/Kodachrome Professional Films” states in the chapter “Exposure of Color films”, that the photographer must make his own tests using his own lighting set-up for exposure onto Type B film. For critical work film the same emulsion number was used to make the trial exposures and the final exposures.

Eastman Kodak stated that the manufacturing variations between successive batches of film were small, with colour differences easily corrected within the range of Kodak CC23, CC33, and CC43 filters. The CC range of Kodak Colour Compensating filters marked in subtractive colours did not exist in the mid-1940s. The equivalent to CC23, CC33, and CC43 was likely to be the 10 densities of Yellow, Magenta and Cyan. (CC10Y, CC10M,CC10C)

The speed of the film was unlikely to vary much more than half a stop at the time of manufacture. As far as Michael is aware, the standard exposure for the earliest Ektachrome film was about 1 second, and production tests by Eastman Kodak may have been made at this exposure. It is likely that exposures longer than 5 seconds may have had to be increased somewhat because of Reciprocity Failure effects. This increase would have varied slightly from one batch of film to another.

By the late-1940s, a supplementary instruction sheet was being packed into Ektachrome Type B film boxes giving exposure and filter recommendations for times of 10 seconds and 120 seconds.

An idea of the exposure increases are given by a later table dating from the early-1950s. An exposure of 10 seconds required an exposure increase of about 1 stop, (i.e. equivalent tp an exposure increase to 20 seconds), and 120 seconds required an increase of around four times the 120 second exposure (i.e. equivalent to an exposure increase to 8 minutes !). At longer exposure times the colour balance would change necessitating the use of Colour Compensating filters to correct the balance.

Ektachrome Processing
From the beginning, the film was designed to be processed by the photographer in his own darkroom. Because the colour couplers were included in the emulsions (unlike Kodachrome), Ektachrome film could be processed using a much simpler procedure than Kodachrome, involving only one colour developer.

From 1946, all Ektachrome film was made by the Eastman Kodak Company at Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. As far as Michael Talbert understands, the film was first marketed in the U.K. in 1947. As the film was intended to be processed by the user, kits of chemicals were available in 2 litre and 5 litre sizes.

In the U.K., in 1947 to 1948, only small amounts of Ektachrome sheet film and the necessary processing kits were imported into the U.K., mainly for bonefide professional photographers. Owing to import restrictions at that time, and to make the most of the processing chemicals that could be imported, Kodak in the U.K. set up a processing service for Ektachrome film at Harrow. By 1948, only the Type B film was available (see Early Ektachrome Film, above).

Michael believes (ref: the British Journal Photographic Almanacs) that Kodachrome sheet film was not actually sold in the UK after the war. Although the BJ Almanac for 1947 mentions “Kodachrome Professional Film” in the Kodak advertisement (referring to sheet film Kodachrome), this "Kodachrome Professional Film" had been replaced by “Ektachrome Film” in the Kodak advert in the 1948 BJ Almanac. By 1950 Ektachrome film had replaced Kodachome in sheet film format and by 1951 Kodachrome sheet film production had ceased altogether.

Eastman Kodak presumably wanted to sell an alternative to Kodachrome sheet film and hence made Ektachrome available. The main reason for Kodak deferring from Kodachrome is likely to be that Kodachrome in sheet film format would have been difficult and expensive for them to process. 35mm film is quite the opposite, since multiple films can be spliced together in the same way as Motion Picture film, and passed through machines as one continuous band of film. But you can’t splice together sheet film, and also it comes in different sizes. No wonder they stopped making it altogether in 1951!.

1947 Processing sequence

Solution

Time (Minutes)

Temperature (°F)
1. First Developer

15

68 +/- ½ F
2. Rinse

1

65 – 71
3. Hardening Bath

5 – 10

66 – 70
4. Re-exposure

10 seconds
 
5. Wash

5

65 – 71
6. Colour Developer

25

66 – 70
7. Wash.

5

65 – 71
8. Clearing and Fixing Bath

5

66 – 70
9. Rinse

1

65 – 71
10. Bleach Bath

10

66 – 70
11. Rinse

1

65 – 71
12. Clearing and Fixing Bath

5

66 – 70
13. Wash

10

65 – 71
14. Wetting Agent Rinse

1

65 – 71
15. Dry    

Notes:-

  1. The first Developer time was extended to 20 minutes in the late 1940s but as far as I can find out, the time could vary according to different film batches.
  2. The film could remain in the Hardening bath for up to 10 minutes. The re-exposure to light could only take place after the film had been in the Hardening Bath for 5 minutes. Film was taken from the Hardening Bath, re-exposed, and then put back in the Hardening bath until all films were re-exposed.
  3. The film could be exposed to white light after 5 minutes in the Hardening bath.
  4. Re-exposure, step 4. The film was exposed for 5 seconds to a No.1 Photoflood lamp. Sheet films were exposed for 5 seconds each side and roll films were exposed in their spirals, each end of the spiral exposed for 5 seconds. If the spiral was made of an opaque material, the film had to be taken out of the spiral, exposed both sides, and then re-loaded. If the film was not exposed for long enough, the processed transparencies retained a colour cast, usually towards green.
  5. The Clearing and Fixing Baths, steps 11 & 12, were the same solution The same bath was used twice.

By 1949 Ektachrome film was being made at Kodak’s Harrow plant in the U.K.

Various formulae for the five processing solutions were suggested in the late 1940s to early 1950s, many of them published in the British Journal of Photography magazine and “BJ” Almanacs. Most formulae for the Colour Developer used May and Baker’s “Genochrome” for the colour developing agent. The quantity of this could be varied to alter the colour balance when making up the colour developer.

In 1949, the process times were reduced by enabling the higher temperature of 75°F. The film was now hardened during manufacture, to withstand the higher processing temperature. As far as Michael knows, by 1952 the film was only manufactured by Eastman Kodak at Rochester, N.Y., and Ektachrome film was no longer made in the U.K.

     

1954 Processing Sequence ~ Process E1 from 1955

Below is a later sequence, dating from 1954, with the higher 75°F temperature timing. At this time, Ektachrome film was obtainable in Daylight and Type B sheet film, and Daylight type 120 and 620 roll film. Various sizes of processing kits were available. Post 1955, with the arrival of Process E2 films and chemistry (see next Section), this earlier chemistry became known as Process E1.

Solution

Time (Minutes)

Temperature (°F)
1. First Developer

10

75 +/- ½°F
2. Rinse

1

73 – 77
3. Hardening Bath

3 – 10

73 – 77
4. Re-exposure

5 seconds
 
5. Wash

3

73 – 77
6. Colour Developer

15

73 – 77
7. Wash.

5

73 – 77
8. Clearing and Fixing Bath

5

73 – 77
9. Rinse

1

73 – 77
10. Bleach Bath

8

73 – 77
11. Rinse

1

73 – 77
12. Clearing and Fixing Bath

3

73 – 77
13. Wash

8

73 – 77
14. Wetting Agent Rinse

1

73 – 77
15. Dry    

Notes:-

  1. Like the previous sequence, the Clearing and Fixing Bath was one solution, used twice.
  2. It was possible to process the film at the lower (1947) temperature of 66 – 70°F, except for the First and Colour Developers, which had to be used at 75 +/- ½°F, and 73 – 77°F respectively. The times for the 1947 previous processing sequence could then be used for all the other stages.
  3. White light could be turned on after the films had been in the Hardening Bath for 3 minutes. The re-exposure step was the same as previously (see 1947 sequence) and the films could remain in the Hardening Bath for up to 10 minutes.

E1 sheet films and E1 processing chemicals only were listed for sale in the February 1960 Kodak Professional Catalogue for the UK.
E1 chemicals were available in kits to make 2 litres and 3 gallons of each of the five solutions. Separate components of the chemical baths were also obtainable to make 3 gallons of each bath.

     

Boxes of Ektachrome 'Process E1' film, late 1950s.

Above:
Two boxes of Ektachrome film for Process E1.
The left hand box has a mid-1950's label and is dated: ”Dev. Before April 1959”

The right hand box (above) has the then new “Picture in a Dark slide” label and is dated “Dev. Before June 1959”. This was the first “picture label”.

Both are “Daylight” type films rated at 12 ASA (ISO).

Right Hand Side:
Rear label from Ektachrome E1 film box dated April 1959.

Box of Ektachrome Process E1 film ~ 6102
The E1 film box (shown below) has an expiry date of January 1961. The box may contain film from some of the last batches of Process E1 film made. By 1960 the new faster Ektachrome film designed for Process E3 (see below) was becoming well established in the U.S.A. The black and white “Use Only Process E1” label was to deter any careless photographer from processing the film inadvertently through Process E3 chemicals !

Exposure of Ektachrome Type B Process E1 film using the supplementary data sheet
Packed inside each box of Ektachrome Type B E1 sheet film was a general instruction sheet plus a supplementary data sheet giving precise instructions for that particular batch of film. The supplementary data sheet gave the actual film speed of the emulsion which could vary from one third of a stop less to one third of a stop more from the normal speed of 10 ASA (ISO) i.e. 8 ASA (ISO) to 12 ASA (ISO).

It was also suggested that, for critical use, the photographer made a trial exposure at an exposure time of one second to find out if any colour correction filter was necessary at this exposure time. If a filter was found necessary it would be combined with any other colour correction filter(s) when the film was exposed at longer exposure times.

The supplementary data sheet for this particular batch of film, batch No. 6102 873 gives the emulsion speed as “Normal”, i.e. 10 ASA (ISO). The data sheet also gave information on colour balance correction for exposures at long and very long exposure times. For long exposure times of about 10seconds a CC05C filter, (5 unit Cyan filter) was suggested plus an exposure increase of half a stop. For very long exposure times of around 120seconds a CC10C filter, (10 unit Cyan filter) was suggested plus an exposure increase of 2 stops. From this information it can be concluded that the colour balance of the film turns red with longer exposures.

Example of how to use this film:
Say the exposure time given by the exposure meter is 40 seconds.
Interpolate (approximately) between the 10seconds and 120seconds exposures discussed in the above paragraph, to the 40seconds indicated by the exposure meter. Since a half stop increase is required at 10seconds and two stops increase in exposure is required at 120seconds, the meter exposure should be (approximately) increased by one stop to compensate for the indicated 40second exposure time i.e. in this case the exposure is doubled. As the film turns redder with longer exposures, a trial exposure might be 80 seconds with a 10 Cyan filter on the lens.

The supplementary data sheet also suggested any exposure adjustment when using clear flash bulbs as the light source at 1/50th second.

The sealing label on the back of the above box can be seen to the left.

It is a bit odd, totally unlike the sealing label of the later E3 boxes, and may possibly have been made for a special purpose, or perhaps Eastman Kodak ran out of the normal labels and had to print some improvised labels for the very last batches of E1 film !

Above the expiry date of "Jan 1961" can be read "MIL. EXPIRY DATE".
MIL.EXPIRY DATE stands for “Military Expiry Date.” Perhaps the film was a special order for the U.S Army and that explains the rather unusual label.

     

1955 ~ Process E2 ~ Daylight Films

In 1955, higher speed 32ASA (ISO) Ektachrome Daylight roll and 35mm films were put on the market, specifically designed for the amateur photographer. For the 35mm photographer it was a faster alternative to the well known Kodachrome Daylight film. Average exposure was 1/50th second at f11 in bright sunlight. The film was also suitable for exposure with blue flash bulbs and electronic flash. This type of lighting could also be used in daylight as “fill in” flash. The new Ektachrome film could also be exposed to Photoflood lighting with a Kodak Wratten filter No.80B, but this cut the film speed down to 12ASA (ISO).

Film sizes available in the U.S.A. in 1955 were:
120 and 620 roll film,
828 in 8 exposure rolls (not in the UK)
35mm in 20 exposure cassettes.

Ektachrome Daylight film was first sold in the U.K. in 1956 when the same film sizes became available as in the U.S.A., except that 828 film was not supplied. At the same time, kits of chemicals for processing the film became available in 600ccs, 2 litres, and 3 gallon sizes. These chemicals were known collectively as “Process E2”. The 1954 process then became known as “Process E1”.
The new films were marked "for Process E2“, and the E2 roll and 35mm films had to be processed separately from the older Process E1 Sheet and Daylight roll films.

The helpful book shown alongside is written on the subject of the new 32ASA Ektachrome films. The book was first published in 1955, but the one shown has a 1957 printing date. It contains an “Ektachrome Pocket Exposure Guide” which can be taken out of the book.
Sections include: Daylight Exposure, Using exposure meters, Filters, How to use Kodak Ektachrome Type F film with flash and photofloods, and processing the film. Printed in October 1957 by the Eastman Kodak Company. There may have been an English equivalent.

The Process E2 processing sequence was almost identical to the 1954 Process E1 procedure (see above). But it used a different First Developer formula and had other slight differences, viz:
Step No.9, the “Rinse" changed from 1 minute to a time range from ½ minute to 1½ minutes.
Step No.14, a "Stabilizer" replaced the previous “Wetting Agent Rinse” with an identical time, i.e. 1 minute.
Films were dried directly after the Stabilizer and not washed or rinsed again.

In 1959, the E2 films were listed in the U.K. “Kodak Dealer’s Catalogue” for that year as E120, E620, and E135 (20 exposures).
Prices for the films in early 1959 were:
E120 and E620, ten shillings and sixpence per roll i.e. 10s.6d (53p).
35mm 20 exposure cassette, 14 shillings and two pence i.e. 14s.2d (71p).
Later that year a 127 size roll film was made available at the same price as the other two roll films.

Unlike all Kodachrome films, Ektachrome films were sold without the cost of the processing included in the price of the film.

Chemical kits for the original E2 processing solutions were still listed in the 1959 “Kodak Dealer’s Catalogue”. A complete kit of size 600ccs for processing 8 films cost 17 shillings i.e. 17s (85p). A complete kit of size 2litres for processing 26 films cost £2.5shillings (£2.25p).

Ektachrome Process E2 ~ Type F Film
Kodak Ektachrome Type F Film was introduced in 1955 as a film principally balanced for taking photographs with clear flash bulbs (a colour tempertaure of approximately 4000°K). Its speed to clear flash bulbs was about 16 ASA (ISO).

It was also possible to make exposures in other light sources such as:
Photoflood lamps with a filter No.82A at 16ASA (ISO).
3200°K lamps with a filter No.82C at 12ASA (ISO).
Daylight with filter No.85C at 16ASA (ISO). The exposure for subjects in bright sunlight with a No.85C filter was about 1/50th second at f8.

For the 35mm user, it gave a choice of an alternative film to Kodachrome Type F film, although Kodachrome Type F was two thirds of a stop slower.

Sizes available in the U.S.A. in 1955 were:
120, 620, 828, (8 exposure rolls), 35mm (20 exposure rolls) and 100foot rolls of 35mm film. The film was coded as E120F or E135F.

The film is not listed in the U.K. Kodak catalogues for 1956 or 1959. The U.K. “Kodak Professional Catalogue” for 1961 lists the film in EF120 and EF135 (20 exposure cassettes).

Manufacture of Ektachrome Daylight Type and Type F films were discontinued in 1962, being replaced by Ektachrome X film.

 1959 ~ Improved E2 Films & Processing

At the end of the 1950s, significant changes were made to the existing E2 roll and 35mm films, resulting in an 'Improved' Process E2 procedure with a modified First Developer and Bleach

The Improved Process E2 chemistry was introduced in the U.K. from 1959 with 600ccs size kits, but this introduction occurred too late to be included in the “Kodak Dealer’s Catalogue” for that year. The separate chemical components were packed in two plastic boxes, one box, Unit 1, containing the two developers, and the other box, Unit 2 (see image, left), containing the Hardener, Clearing bath, Bleach, Fixer, and Stabilizer chemicals. With the “Improved Type” chemical solutions, the Clearing Bath and the Fixer were now separate solutions.

A complete kit of “Improved Type“ E2 chemicals cost £1.2s.6d (£1.12p). The two Developers cost 12s (60p). The remaining chemicals cost 10s.6d (52p). All of these are late 1959 prices. The Unit 2 package shown alongside (left) is from an "Improved Type" processing kit, but dates to 1967, by which time Kodak had ceased to print “Improved Type” on the packaging.

All Ektachrome E2 films could be processed in either the 'Original' or the Process E2 "Improved Type” kits, but the Improved Type chemistry gave a better colour rendering and clearer highlights.

You could also put E2 films through E3 chemicals, as long as you then kept the two E3 developers specially for E2 films. At Art college Michael found it best to put several cut films through the process first to “ripen” the two colour developers, otherwise the freshly mixed chemistry resulted in a green cast on the film.

Michael thinks it was 1968 or 1969 when Kodak finally stopped the manufacture of E2 chemicals.

Process E2 ~ Unit 2 (see image). Michael Talbert purchased this Unit 2 part kit, along with the Unit 1 part, in January 1967, for his first attempt at processing colour film.

All the enclosed chemicals were powders, except for the Stabilizer, and had to be mixed with water to make 600ccs working solution. The liquid Stabilizer was diluted with water to make 600ccs of working solution.

The chemicals would (officially) keep for 8weeks, unused or partially used before needing replacement. This was a very conservative estimate and many users found that the chemicals would keep for at least another 4 weeks. Kodak enclosed a very informative 6 page instruction sheet with the Unit 1 part kit containing the First Developer and Colour Developer.

     

Process E2 'Improved Type' Procedure

Films must be loaded into spirals in total darkness.
Total darkness for first three steps.

Solution or Wash

Temperature °F

Time (Minutes)
1. First Developer

75 +/– ½°

10
2. Rinse

73 – 77

1
3. Hardener

73 – 77

3
After the film has been in the Hardener for 3 minutes, room lights can be turned on
4. Wash

73 – 77

3
5. Reversal Exposure Expose each side of the film for 5 seconds at 1 foot from a No. 2 Photoflood lamp. If the spiral reel was transparent or metal, (Nikkor reels), each end of the reel could be exposed to the light. If the spiral reel was opaque, it was best to remove the film from the spiral, expose it, and then rewind it back onto the spiral. If the films were not exposed for long enough, the finished transparencies exhibited a green colour cast.
6. Colour Developer

73 – 77

15
7. Wash

73 – 77

5
8. Clearing Bath

73 – 77

5
9. Rinse

73 – 77

1
10. Bleach

73 – 77

8
11. Rinse

73 – 77

1
12. Fixer

73 – 77

6
13. Wash

73 – 77

8
14. Stabilize

73 – 77

1
15. Dry

Not over 110 °F

Notes

  1. Compared with the E1 Process, the Clearing Bath and Fixer were now separate solutions. The Clearing Bath now acted as a “Stop – Bath”, to remove all traces of the Colour Developer. If the films still had any Colour Developer remaining in them when placed into the Bleach, this would result in a pink cast, mainly in the highlights, in the finished transparencies, which was impossible to remove. The new Clearing bath did not “fix” the film in any way.
  2. As the Clearing Bath did not fix the film, the fixing time in step 12 was increased to 6 minutes. There were two types of fixer, a solution made up from a powder and a solution made up from a concentrated liquid. The small sized kits contained the powder version, but the liquid version was used to make up larger quantities of fixer for professional laboratories with continuous processing equipment. The film required 6minutes in the powder fixer, and 4minutes in the fixer made up from the liquid concentrate.
  3. Films were now re-exposed after the wash, step 4, and were drained for at least 1 minute before colour development. The film could be taken out of the wash tank, re-exposed, and then put back into the wash tank. Steps 4 and 5 could be done simultaneously as long as the films were drained for 1 minute before placing in the colour developer.
  4. The films were dried directly after the Stabilizer bath without further washing.
  5. As the films looked blue from the base side and yellow from the emulsion side whilst wet, colour balance could only be judged when the films were completely dry.

The above process was also the sequence and timings for the later Ektachrome E3 process, described below.


Above are shown three 120 roll film size Ektachrome films.
High Speed Ektachrome for Daylight, dated July 1974.
Ektachrome X film for Daylight, dated May 1971.
High Speed Ektachrome Type B dated November 1965.
All could be processed in E2 or the later (from 1966), Process E4.

High Speed Ektachrome Film
In 1959 an increased speed Ektachrome film was introduced, at first as 35mm film format in 20 exposure cassettes for exposure in Daylight. It’s speed was 160 ISO (ASA), over two stops faster than the regular Ektachrome film, (32 ASA). It was then the fastest colour film in the world. Next fastest was Super Anscochrome D, which was rated at 100 ISO (ASA)

About a year later an artificial light type for 3200°K was made available as “High Speed Ektachrome Type B”, packed in 20 exposure 35mm cassettes, rated at 125 ISO (ASA). By 1963, 120 size roll films in both daylight and Type B films made their appearance.

     

E2 Formulae from the British Journal of Photography Annual 1980
The processing sequence to use is the Process E2 “Improved Type” procedure, as above. The First Developer is the most critical solution. The Bleach, Fix, and Stabilizer are for E4 as well.
All these formulae make up 1 litre of each solution.

First Developer.
Metol 6g
They also state Phenidone 0.5g
 
Hydroquinone  6g 
Sodium Carbonate(anhydrous)  40g 
Sodium Sulphite(anhydrous)  40g 
Potassium Bromide  2g 
Sodium Thiocyanate  2g 
Potassium Iodide(can be omitted)  0.006g 
Nitrobenzimidazole nitrate (0.2 solution) can be left out)  15ml 
Water to  1 litre 

Hardener. This is a weak Stop Bath.
Chrome Alum 30g
Water to  1 litre 

Colour Developer
Trisodium Phosphate (crystalline 12H2O) 40g
Caustic Soda (pellets)  8.6g 
Sodium Sulphite (anhydrous) 5g 
Benzyl alcohol 5ml 
EDTA Na4 3g 
Ethylenediamine Sulphate 7.5g 
Potassium Iodide (can be omitted) 0.01g 
Citazinic acid (2.6dihydroxyisonicotinic acid) 1.3g 
CD3 10ml
Water to  1 litre 

Clearing Bath. This is a Stop Bath.
Potassium Metabisulphite 20g
Hydroquinone (can be left omitted)  1g
Water to  1 litre 

Bleach
Potassium Ferricyanide 112g
Potassium Bromide 24g
Disodium hydrogen Orthophosphate (12H20)  62g 
Monosodium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate (anhydrous)  15.6g 
Sodium Thiocyanate  10g 
Water to  1 litre 

Fixer
Sodium Thiosulphate, crystalline
OR Ammonium Thiosulphate
160g
120g
Potassium Metabisulphite 20g
Water to  1 litre 
4 minutes should be OK using Ammonium Thiosulphate.

Stabilizer
Formaldehyde (30-40% solution) 2 - 3ml
Wetting Agent (10% solution). Believed to mean, wetting agent diluted 1+9, then 10ml of that in 1 litre of water. 10ml
Water to  1 litre 

     

1959 to 1977 ~ Process E3

In 1959, new Process E3 Ektachrome films came onto the market, in sheet and roll film formats.

The new sheet films were named:-
Ektachrome Color Reversal Film, Daylight Type, Process E3.
Ektachrome Color Reversal Film, for Artificial Light Type B, Process E3.
Daylight type roll films, in sizes 120 and 620 (only 120 in the UK) were also obtainable, named:
Ektachrome Professional Film.

The roll films were identical to the sheet film emulsions. The Daylight Type roll film was introduced at the same time as the Daylight Type sheet film, in 1959. The Type B E3 sheet film was produced perhaps a year earlier (1958), but the Type B rollfilm was introduced much later, in 1971. Both rollfilms were replaced by Process E6 emulsions in 1976.

Two very early Ektachrome Process E3 Film boxes

Daylight Type (LHS) and Artificial Light Type B (RHS)

Size 2¼ x 3¼ inches and labeled with instructions to “only use Process E3” chemicals.

     

Same boxes as above.

The Daylight film was rated at 50 ASA (ISO).

The Type B film was rated at 32 ASA (ISO) for a ½ second exposure, but the speed then dropped as low as 10 ASA (ISO) for a 30 second exposure.

For exposures as long as 30 seconds, Kodak CC 05 Magenta plus Kodak CC 05 Red filters were recommended to be used in the supplementary instruction sheet.

     

Same boxes as above.

As can be seen, the expiry dates were:

May 1961 for the Daylight type film (RHS) and June 1960 for the Type B film.

It is likely that Eastman Kodak were manufacturing Ektachrome sheet film for Process E3 and Process E1 concurrently for a year or so. Here the Type B film has an earlier expiry date than the Ektachrome Process E1 Type B sheet film box illustrated above (January 1961).

     

Process E3 Procedure
This was identical as regards to temperature and timings to the 'Improved' Process E2. The solutions were replenished with the same chemicals apart from the Process E3 First Developer.
There were separate replenisher solutions for the First Developer of Process E3 compared to Process E2. These were called, appropriately enough:
First Developer Replenisher chemicals Process E2.
First Developer Replenisher chemicals Process E3.

An instruction leaflet was included with the 2 gallon replenisher chemicals giving information in tabular form of amounts of replenisher to be added after each process for single or quantities of the various sizes of sheet film, roll film, and 35mm film for both E2 and E3 processes. The two gallon size replenisher chemicals were intended for use with three gallon tank installations and not for continuous processing machines.

The E3 Process was replaced by the E6 process about 1977 and by then most laboratories had installed the necessary equipment to process the then new E6 films. But there must have been a short period of time during the changeover when a few laboratories were running an E3 Process, an E4 Process, and an E6 Process ! By 1978 the E3 and E4 films still on the market must have been out of date or very near their expiry date.

The new sheet films and roll films designed for the Process E3 were processed in exactly the same way as the Process E2 improved Type films (above), using the same bath sequence but employing a First Developer incorporating a different developing agent. In consequence, films designated for the E2 process, (roll films and 35mm films), had to be processed separately from the new E3 sheet and roll films by using separate First Developers and Colour Developers. All other solutions were common to both processes. However, it was possible to process small amounts of E3 film through E2 developers provided the process was operating within tolerance. Control strips of pre-exposed film were processed at regular intervals to check that the process was operating within limits as regard to speed of films, contrast, and fog level.

In the USA. and the UK, both E1 and E3 processing chemicals and kits were sold concurrently for a time. Gradually E1 film and chemicals were phased out, being replaced by the new E3 films and processing solutions. It is said (BJ Almanac 1961) that the new E3 films gave improved definition and considerably better colour rendering of yellows and greens; also cleaner whites.

Ektachrome E3 Daylight Type Sheet Film ~ 6115
In 1959, new, faster, improved Ektachrome sheet films were introduced to replace the original E1 Ektachrome sheet films which had been on the market since 1946 (see above).

The new Ektachrome sheet film was available in Daylight type, rated at 50 ISO (ASA), and also as an artificial light Type B version (3200°K), designed for exposure at times of ½second or longer with a nominal speed of 32 ISO (ASA).

This sheet film was first available for sale in the USA in 1959, in formats from 2¼ x 3¼inches to 11 x 14inches, plus 5 sizes in square centimeters. The same emulsion was obtainable in rollfilm, EP 120 and EP 620.

According to the BJ Almanac for 1960, E3 film was not available for sale in the UK in late 1959 and the same Almanac still gave information on the old E1 sheet film. A year later, E3 film was being sold in the UK and a 4 inch x 5 inch size box of 10 sheets of film cost £4 8s 2d in 1961.

A box of equivalent size black and white film in 1961, say Plus X, cost about £1 4s (£1.20), but this was for 25 sheets of film. It should be remembered that the Chancellor, Selwyn Lloyd, announced a surcharge of 10% on Purchase Tax in July 1961, so the price of film would have risen during the latter part of the year.

The Data Sheet for Ektachrome Daylight film, dated March 1959, states that the best colour rendering is obtained in clear or hazy sunlight, and gives filter suggestions for other light sources and guide numbers for blue flashbulbs and electronic flash.

The speed of the film varied between 40 ISO (ASA) and 64 ISO (ASA). A supplementary data sheet, together with an instruction sheet of 4 pages packed with the film, stated the correct speed for each emulsion. Also printed on the supplementary data sheet was a filter suggestion for exposing the film with electronic flash tubes, usually a CC10Y filter = 10 Yellow. The emulsion number of the film was printed on the sheet and on the left side of the box. Also, it was embossed on each sheet of film.

     

To the left are shown various E3 film boxes, containing both Daylight and Type B film. These boxes date from the early 1960s; the Type B film box on the left is dated “February 1963”, the film being manufactured about March 1962.

The “Dev. Before” date was originally printed on the back end of the box. Its position was changed to the front end in about January 1963, as is the case with the middle two boxes, and the box to the right hand side, shown alongside.

Alongside are Kodak Ektachrome Process E3 film boxes from the late 1960s to the mid 1970s.

The small box of Type B film (top of the 'pile') has its box sealing label fixed to the long side of the box. This change started in 1969 for Black and White and Colour sheet film but by the early 1970s Kodak had reverted to attaching the sealing label to the short side of the box again. The expiry date on the 2¼ x 3¼ inch Type B box is June 1971. This film was made and packed in the USA. It has a new design label and was probably manufactured about August 1970.

Note the film numbers, starting in the late 1960s, were printed on the right hand side of the labels – 6115 for E3 Daylight film, 6116 for E3 Type B film.

The Ektachrome box dated JAN 1970 (centre top box in the 2 rows of three boxes) has a starred sticker to one side, saying – ESTAR BASE. This was the trade name used by Kodak for “Polyester Plastic”. All sheet film Ektachrome Process E3 film was normally coated onto an acetate base, like Kodak Ektacolor Professional sheet film. This box of film is believed to be an experimental batch or a batch made for a special purpose. On the side of the box is the emulsion number, SO 263 21 B, meaning a Kodak product which was supplied to Special Order (SO), not to be on sale indefinitely, and could be withdrawn from the market at any time. Michael Talbert used this film in his 2nd year at Medway College of Art, and apart from the film having a slightly thinner base, it was identical to any other box of Ektachrome E3 sheet film.

Ektachrome E3 Artificial Light Type B Sheet Film for 3200°K lamps
This film was also available for sale in the U.S.A. from 1959 in sheet film format only and in the same sizes as the Daylight Type E3 film. It was sold for the first time in the U.K. in 1960. Each box contained a general instruction sheet and a supplementary data sheet. Similar to the Ektachrome E1 film (see above), the supplementary data sheet gave the actual speed of the film plus filter recommendations for correcting the colour balance when the film was exposed at longer times than ½ second.

The general instruction sheet gave exposure indexes for:

  • 3200°K lamps: 32ASA (ISO), ½second exposure with no filters.
  • Photoflood lamps: 25ASA (ISO) ½second exposure with a Kodak filter No. 81A.
  • Daylight: 25ASA (ISO) 1/50th second exposure with a Kodak Wratten No. 85B filter.

In the description of exposing sheets of Type B film designed for the Ektachrome E1 process (see above), the photographer was advised to increase exposure by between ½ stop and two stops, due to the reciprocity failure of the film. A different method of calculating the exposure was used with Ektachrome Type B E3 film.

Typical Supplementary Data sheet for a batch of Ektachrome Type B Process E3 sheet film

Emulsion No. 6116 769  

Exposure Time

Effective Speed ASA (ISO)

Suggested Kodak Filters

½ second

32

(see colour balance) *

5 seconds

20

CC 10G

30 seconds

12

CC 20G

* colour balance
For critical use, Kodak recommended that the photographer made a “test” exposure at ½ second to determine if any colour filter was necessary to correct the colour balance when using this exposure time. For longer exposures, this filter, if any, was combined with the two filters suggested for exposure times of 5 seconds and 30 seconds.

Normally, the correct exposure was found by setting the exposure meter at the middle ASA speed i.e. 20 ASA, and taking a reading. If the exposure time thus calculated was much greater or much less than 5 seconds, and a different speed given in the data sheet related to this time, this different speed was used to re-calculate the exposure. For times much beyond 30 seconds, say over 60 seconds, a trial exposure definitely had to be made, as it was likely that the film speed would need to be decreased even further and the colour balance corrected with a higher strength filter than CC 20G.

Example:
The meter is set to 20 ASA (ISO), as if the photographer is expecting to use a 5 second exposure. A reading is taken from the subject and the photographer finds the indicated exposure time to be 14 seconds. As this time is much longer than 5 seconds, but much less than 30 seconds, the speed on the meter is reset to an intermediate speed, say 16 ASA (ISO), and another reading taken. This gives an exposure time of, say, 19 seconds, so the sheet of film is then exposed for a trial exposure at 19 seconds with a CC 10G (10 unit Green filter) and a CC 5G (5 unit Green filter) on the lens to make 15 Green (an intermediate correction between 10G and 20G, see table above).

Michael Talbert exposed many sheets of Ektachrome Type B E3 film and in his experience it was always best to take a “test" shot first, which would also tell the particular colour balance of the processing chemicals. In the above example, if the E3 process was tending towards a magenta balance, this might “cancel out” the results from a CC10 Green filter, making the finished transparency still slightly magenta despite exposing with the equivalent of a 15 Green filter on the lens. Thus, the "test" would give guidance of the likely need to use a stronger correction filter than CC15 Green.

Other common variables which might alter the colour balance of the processed transparencies include:

  • The age of the film,
  • The storage of the film,
  • The colour of reflectors and spotlight lenses,
  • Delay in processing the sheets of film,
  • Colour of the viewing illuminant.

BUT....given the correct exposure and processing, this film was capable of producing outstanding results, far better than that of any rollfilm or 35 mm film designed for Process E2.

Ektachrome E3 Process sheet films were replaced by Ektachrome E6 sheet films in 1976.

     

Process E-4 ~ Ektachrome Daylight and Tungsten sheet films, SO-371 and SO-375

Process E-4 was introduced by Eastman Kodak Company in 1965 as a faster reversal process operating at 83 – 87°F for machine processing of amateurs’ Ektachrome films. Unlike Process E-3, there was need for re-exposure of the partly processed film to light for reversal; instead, reversal was accomplished by chemical fogging in the E-4 Colour Developer.

Films suitable for processing in E-4 (in 1973) were:
Ektachrome X film, High Speed Ektachrome films, Daylight and Tungsten types.
Ektachrome MS film 5256 (70mm film).
Ektachrome ER film 5257 (Daylight), and Ektachrome ER film 5258 (Tungsten).
Ektachrome Duplicating Print film 5038
Ektachrome Infrared Film.
Two sheet films, Ektachrome Film, SO-371 (160 ISO, Daylight), and Ektachrome Film, SO-375 (125 ISO Tungsten).

Other sheet film Ektachrome, 6115 and 6116, Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6119 and 6120, and Professional roll films, 50 ASA, and 32 ASA, could not be processed in E4. These films could only be processed in E3.

As the films listed above were originally designed for processing at temperatures of 73 – 77°F, (Process E-2), emulsion reticulation would occur when processing these films at higher temperatures. Therefore, two additional baths were required,
(i) a “Pre – Hardener” bath, to harden the films to enable the emulsions to withstand the process temperature of 83 – 87°F, an increase of 10F over processes E-2 and E-3,
(ii) a “Neutralizer” bath, to prepare the films for processing in the “First Developer”.

The Pre–Hardener bath contained two powerful hardening agents, (i) Formaldehyde and (ii) DMTF, 25 – dimethoxytetrahydrofuran.
When the two chemicals were mixed they released a gas, succinaldehyde. In their processing instruction sheet for E-4 processing in 3 gallon tanks and larger installations, Kodak gave details of darkroom ventilation and the fitting of extraction fans over any tanks containing the Pre–Hardener solution.

The E-4 Colour Developer contained TBAB – tertiary butylamine borane. This chemical enabled the undeveloped parts of the film, having been developed to a negative image in the First Developer, to react in the Colour Developer to form a positive image. TBAB is very toxic, and the chemical had to be handled with great care. Kodak supplied the chemical as one part of the Colour Developer, and Colour Developer Replenisher, in pellet form, to reduce any chance of inhaling any dust or powder from the TBAB when mixing the Colour Developer or it’s Replenisher. Again, the 3 gallon instruction leaflet gave precautions in handling and mixing the components of the separate parts of the Colour Developer/Replenisher.

If the Colour Developer was mixed from separate chemicals, as to the formula, TBAB could be omitted. The films were then given a reversal light exposure after step 5, in the same way as in the E2 and E3 procedures, before placing the films in the Colour Develper.

Although the process was initially designed for use in large tank installations and continuous processing machines, it was possible to use the E-4 process in small amateur developing tanks. Small volume kits of chemicals were made available in 1 quart size (US), and 600ccs size (UK) by the end of the 1960s.

Processing Procedure for E-4 (i) large commercial tanks (ii) amateur processing tanks
(i) Processing Procedure for 3 gallon tanks and larger processing machines.

Step

Time (minutes)

Temperature (°C)
(°F)
In total darkness
1. Pre-Hardener 

3

29.5 +/- 0.5
85 +/- 1
2. Neutraliser

1

28 - 31
83 - 87
3. First Developer

6

29.5 +/- 0.25
85 +/- 0.5
4. First Stop Bath

2

28 - 31
83 - 87
Remaining steps can be carried out in daylight
5. Wash

4 minutes in running water

27 - 32
80 - 90
6. Colour Developer

9

28 - 31
83 - 87
7. Second Stop Bath

3

28 - 31
83 - 87
8. Wash

3

27 - 32
80 - 90
9. Bleach

5

28 - 31
83 - 87
10. Fixer

4

28 - 31
83 - 87
11. Wash

6

27 - 32
80 - 90
12. Stabiliser

1

28 - 32
83 - 87
13. Dry at a temperature not above 110°F

Notes:

  1. The film needs to be agitated in the solutions continuously for the first 15 seconds, and then for 5 seconds per minute. Other agitation rates in the two developers is a more vigorous 15 seconds initial rate, then agitation at 30 second intervals.
    In the Pre–Hardener and Neutraliser the film requires to be agitated vigorously for the first 15 seconds, and then no agitation for the remainder of the times.
  2. Both Stop Baths are of the same formula, but once used, they can NOT be interchanged.
  3. The table above applies to the use of replenished solutions in large tank and machine processing systems. For unreplenished solutions and amateur processing kits, the Colour Development time needs to be increased to 15 minutes (See next table).
  4. In large automatic processing machines it is possible to wash the films in water at temperatures down to 50°F, as long as the machine operates at a sufficiently high water flow rate.
  5. This E4 process table dates from 1973.

(ii) Processing procedure for small tanks, 2 litres or less. This was the processing procedure for the Kodak (UK) amateur E-4 kits.

Step

Time (minutes)

Temperature (°C)
(°F)
In total darkness
1. Pre-Hardener 

3

29.5 +/- 0.5
85 +/- 1
2. Neutraliser

1

28 - 31
83 - 87
3. Wash

1

28 - 31
83 - 87
4. First Developer

6

29.5 +/- 0.25
85 +/- 0.5
5. First Stop Bath

2

28 - 31
83 - 87
Remaining steps can be carried out in daylight
6. Wash

4 minutes in running water

27 - 32
81 - 90
7. Colour Developer

15

28 - 31
83 - 87
7. Second Stop Bath

3

28 - 31
83 - 87
8. Wash

3

27 - 32
81 - 90
9. Bleach

5

28 - 31
83 - 87
10. Fixer

4

28 - 31
83 - 87
11. Wash

6

27 - 32
81 - 90
12. Stabiliser

1

28 - 32
83 - 87
13. Dry at a temperature not above 113°F

Notes:

  1. Agitation rates for roll film in spiral reels, loaded onto a processing rack such as the Kodak No.3RM rack.
    Pre-Hardener and Neutralizer: Agitate continuously for the first 15 seconds. Lift the rack of films out of the solution and re-immerse it about 8 times. Then no further agitation for the remaining time.
    First Developer and Colour Developer: The same as the Pre-Hardener and Neutralizer for the first 15 seconds, then none for the next 15 seconds. For the remainder of the time in each developer, lift the rack 2 or 3 inches and lower it to the bottom of the tank. Repeat this every ½ minute.
    Other solutions: Continuous agitation for the first 15 seconds, then agitate once per minute by lifting the rack completely out of the solution, draining it from alternate corners for 5 seconds then re-immersing it.
    All times include a 20 second drain time at the end of each step.
    Automatic processing machines used Nitrogen Gas burst agitation.
  2. Agitation for films wound onto spiral reels and processed in small non invertible developing tanks, usually plastic, such as Paterson, Johnson, Nebro.
    Rotation agitation: Initial – rotate the reel 4 to 5 times during the first 5 seconds. Subsequent – Rotate the reel 4 to 5 times every 30 seconds except for the Pre-Hardener, Neutralizer, and Stabilizer.
    Invertible tanks such as Nikkor, LPL, Soligor.(Stainless steel).
    Pre-Hardener. Tap the tank to dislodge any air bubbles clinging to films.
    Initial agitation: Each solution except for First Developer; Turn the tank over once per second for the first 15 seconds.
    First Developer: Turn the tank over once per second for the first two minutes.
    Subsequent agitation: No further agitation required in the Pre-Hardener, Neutralizer, and Stabilizer.
    Other solutions: Turn the tank over 4 to 5 times every 30 seconds.
    Include a drain time of at least 10 seconds when using small spiral reel tanks.
  3. When processing in small amateur developing tanks it was necessary to wash the films for 1 minute between the Neutraliser and First Developer, to prevent too much contamination of the First Developer with Neutraliser. This wash was not required with larger volumes of processing solutions (see table above). The 1 minute wash step is omitted from the US E-4 processing procedure for 1 pint tanks.
  4. The US E-4 procedures stated that the Fixer time should be increased to 6 minutes when using a powder type fixer (4 minutes with a liquid Fixer).
  5. This E4 processing table dates from 1969 and is taken from the instruction sheet for a 2 litre and 600 ccs size E-4 chemical kit.
  6. Two thirds of the first page of the instruction sheet is devoted to “Precautions in Handling Chemicals” and “Ventilation”. No special recommendations were advised by Kodak when using the smaller sized kits of chemicals because only small surface areas of the solutions were exposed in the spiral reel tanks normally used with the kits.

Storage Life of Solutions

Full glass bottles

Tanks and partially full bottles
Developers and Pre-Hardener unused

4 weeks

10 days
Developers and Pre-Hardener partially used

2 weeks

10 days
Other solutions unused

12 weeks

12 weeks
Other solutions partially used

8 weeks

8 weeks

     

Process E-6

The Ektachrome E-6 process began to supercede Process E-4 from 1976. The fundamental difference between Process E-6 and the previous Processes E-2 and E-4, is their processing temperatures. Process E-6 is officially intended for use at 38°C (100°F), while Process E-2 was 24°C (75°F) and Process E-4 (from 1965) was a 29.5°C (85°F) process, though some post-hardening stages could vary up to 32°C (90°F).

Kodak stopped making Ektachrome X (a process E2 film) about 1978, replacing it by Ektachrome 64 film for the (new) E-6 process. Thereafter, all previous Ektachrome films could only be processed if sent to a laboratory still providing the lower temperature Process E-4 (or the obsolete E-2).

Although, at its very highest temperature of use, Process E-4 was only 10degF lower than Process E-6, an important inclusion within Process E-4 (compared to Process E2) was a 85°F Pre-Hardener stage, which toughened E-2 film emulsion layers sufficiently to withstand E-4 processing temperatures. You couldn't process E-2 Ektachrome films in Process E-4 without putting them through this Pre-Hardener step first.

Since Process E-6 does not include a Pre-Hardener, (because E-6 films are intrinsically designed to tolerate the 38°C E-6 processing temperature), any E-2 film put through an E-6 process would be liable to irretrievable emulsion damage; the emulsion might even separate completely from its base.

For advice on how to process out of date E-2 films, see the following section.

Processing Procedure for E-6

The following table provides a summary of steps for Process E-6 in a typical amateur 600ml processing tank. The times shown include a 10 second drain time at the end of each step. If your tank is not a daylight-loading model, you should load it in complete darkness, but for convenience of filling, emptying and agitating with solution, it is acceptable to remove the lid of the tank at the end of step 3.

For a commercial large tank replenished system or continuous processor, the following times applied:
First Developer, 6 minutes; Bleach, 6 minutes; Final Wash, 4 minutes; Stabiliser, ½ minute.

Step

Time

Temperature (°C)
In total darkness
1. First Developer

7 minutes (see note 6);
Agitate for first 15 seconds, then 2 inversions every ½ minute

38 +/- 0.3
2. Wash

2 minutes;
static water bath

25 to 39
3. Reversal Bath

2 minutes;
Rap tank to dislodge bubbles then no agitation

33 - 39
Remaining steps can be carried out in daylight
4. Colour Developer

6 minutes;
Agitate as Step 1

38 +/- 0.6
5. Conditioner

2 minutes;
Agitate as Step 3

33 - 39
6. Bleach

7 minutes;
Agitate as Step 1

33 - 39
7. Fixer

4 minutes;
Agitate as Step 1

33 - 39
8. Wash

6 minutes;
flowing water or frequent changes off still baths

25 - 39
9. Stabiliser

1 minute;
Agitate as Step 3

ambient
10. Dry Film removed from reel, maximum temperature 50°C

Notes:

  1. The KODAK 'Ektachrome' Film Processing Kit, Process E-6, for colour slide films, consists of seven solutions: First Developer, Reversal Bath, Colour Developer, Conditioner, Bleach, Fixer and Stabilizer. All the chemicals in the 600ml size kit are supplied as liquid concentrates.
  2. Two units of each of the First Developer and Colour Developer are included as the other solutions have double their processing capacity.
  3. Full details of mixing and processing techniques are in the instructions supplied with the kit.
  4. Once mixed, the solutions should be stored in full, tightly stoppered, glass bottles. For best results they should be kept at room temperature (5 to 30°C) and not kept longer than 4 weeks for the First Developer, Reversal Bath and Conditioner, 8 weeks for the Colour Developer, and 24 weeks for the Bleach, Fixer and Stabilizer.
  5. The First Developer time of 7 minutes is for initial films through the process. The Kodak instruction leaflet gives time adjustments for subsequent films.
  6. The Reversal Bath chemically fogged the silver halide that had not developed in the First Developer. It took the place of exposing the film to light during its prrocessing, as was required with Processes E-2 and E-3.
  7. The Conditioner was a Stop Bath, stopping colour development. It was essentially the same as the Process E-2 and E-3 Clearing Bath, and you could substitute the E-2 / E-3 Clearing Bath for the E-6 Conditioner.
  8. Its understood that the E-6 Stabiliser Bath was the same as used for E-2, E-3 and E-4.
  9. After processing, the film should be removed from the reel and air dried in a dust-free atmosphere or drying cabinet at a temperature not higher than 50°C. Your film is then ready for cutting and mounting in slide mounts if required.
  10. For optimum quality, Process E-6 films should be exposed at the exposure index marked on the box, but they can be uprated by one or two stops, in conjunction with a modified process procedure, if a slight reduction in quality is acceptable. Also, when films are wrongly exposed by accident, this makes it possible to provide some compensation for the incorrect exposure. The following table gives guide values to show how the first development time can be adjusted to compensate for camera exposures other than at the normal exposure index.
  11. If you wish, it's possible to produce colour prints from your slides. When selecting slides for printing, it's best to view them by reflected light from a light coloured surface. KODAK 'Ektachrome' 14 Paper is suitable for making prints from slides and may be processed in KODAK 'Ektaprint' R14 Chemicals.

From Note 11, above.

Camera Exposure Adjustment Guide

First Developer Time

2 stops under exposed; four times the official film speed
(i.e. speed uprated by 2 stops)

Increase by 5½ minutes

1 stop under exposed; double the official film speed
(i.e. speed uprated by 1 stop)

Increase by 2 minutes

Normal; the official film speed

Normal First Development

1 stop over exposed; half the official film speed
(i.e. speed downrated by 1 stop)

Decrease by 2 minutes

The British Journal of Photography Annual for 1985 gives advice for processing E-6 film at 32°C (rather than the official 38°C), being the lowest temperature recommended. The BJPA text says that processing below 32°C “the permeability of the emulsion diminishes too greatly to permit adequate exchange of solutions through the gelatin”. In other works, below 32°C, the gelatin is too cold to let the flow of chemicals through to work on the bottom emulsion layers (but see the following section, where Photo Technology claimed processing to be possible down to 20°C).

First Developer 14 minutes
Rinse 3 minutes
Reversal Bath 3 minutes
Colour Developer 12 minutes
Conditioner 3 minutes
Bleach 12 minutes
Fixer 5¾ minutes
Final Wash 12 minutes
Final Bath (Stabilizer) 2 minutes (not critical)
Dry

     

Processing Out-of-Date E-2 (and E-3 / E-4) films
As explained in the preceeding section, any Process E-2 film (e.g. Ektachrome X) that might be discovered undeveloped, maybe in an old camera, cannot be simply put through a 'modern' Process E-6 procedure because its emulsion will not be able to withstand the higher Process E-6 temperature.

Possible Options are:

  1. Use a low temperature (unofficial) C-41 process as described on the Photomemorabilia website here. Keeping the process temperature at 75°F or below should give unmasked negatives which could be printed digitally. Michael Talbert has some precedent knowledge for this advice, having put a 120 roll of High Speed Ektachrome film through C-22 (previous to C-41) chemicals. The resulting negatives were rather contrasty, very pink and (of coutrse) unmasked, but they did print with a high yellow and cyan filtration. That was in 1971, and the HS Ektachrome film was still 'in date'.
  2. Considering the uncertainties involved and the age of any E-2 film (35 or more years out of date), perhaps black and white processing at 68°F would be the best option, as here.
  3. If there is an urgent need to try to obtain colour transparencies from an old E-2 film, it might be possible to improvise a low temperature E-6 process. For starters, Michael Talbert suggests the following "E6 process at 75°F" improvisation. But there is no certainty this would work !! It is based upon the old “double the time for every 10°F degrees downwards“ rule: Thus, the official E-6 First Developer time is 6 minutes at 100°F, so that would make it around 35 minutes for 75°F. Do the same with the Colour Developer, 6 minutes at 100°F, so maybe 35 minutes at 75°F. The other solutions could also be increased, perhaps by a x4 factor on each of their times, most are 2 and 4 minutes. The Bleach is 6 minutes at 100°F, so try 24 minutes at 75°F. The longer in the First Developer the better as any E-2 film will be out of date. Note that similar low temperature processing of E-6 film is not possible because (according to the BJPA for 1985) below 32°C “the permeability of the E-6 emulsion diminishes too greatly to permit adequate exchange of solutions through the gelatin”. In other works, below 32°C the E-6 gelatin is too cold to let the flow of chemicals through to work on the bottom emulsion layers (but see below; Photo Technology seemed to have found a way around this problem !).
  4. Photo Technology, in their Photocolor Chrome Six kit for processing E-6 colour slide films, gave instructions with processing times for temperatures varying from 113°F down to 68°F, though they recommended processing at the official Kodak temperature of 100°F. The Chrome 6 times and temperatures are shown in the table below. This kit is no longer available and any remaining 'out of date' kits may now be unuseable - their long term shelf life is unknown.
  5. Or see the E2 chemistry published the in British Journal of Photography in 1980.

Photo Chrome 6 Instructions

Tank Pre-Heat 1 minute at 110°F
Moderate this appropriate to 68°F
First Developer 3 minutes & 40 seconds
6 minutes & 30 seconds
28 minutes & 15 seconds
113°F
100°F
68°F
Wash 3 minutes at 93 - 108°F
Increase to perhaps 12 minutes at 68°F
Colour Developer 5 minutes
6 minutes
9 minutes
113°F
100°F
68°F
Rinse 1½ minutes at 93 - 108°F
Increase to perhaps 6 minutes at 68°F
Bleach Fix 10 minutes 68 - 113°F
Wash 4 minutes at 93 - 108°F
Increase to perhaps 10 minutes at 68°F
Dry

Notes for Chrome 6:

  1. The above is for the first film processed. The First Developer times were increased for subsequent films processed. The Colour Developer and Bleach Fix times didn't change for the life of the kit.
  2. You could also obtain a “Stabilizer” separately, or use a Wetting Agent rinse.
  3. The kit made up to 600 ml of each solution and would process 6 off 120 films or equivalent area. The table above is drawn from the kit instructions which contained a chart showing First Developer and Colour Developer times from 68°F to 113°F. In the table above it has been presumed that the wash times could be increased for lower temperatures but Photo Technology didn’t say. The kit from which this information was taken is dated "Use by August 1992", so is now well out of date. To what extent any out of date kits might still be useable, is unknown.

In Conclusion:
Overall, trying simple black and white processing chemistry seems the easiest and as likely as any to give some sort of useable images, albeit without any colour.


Kodak Reversal Color Print Material
     

Type R Paper from 1955 (becoming Ektachrome Paper in 1958)
This colour printing paper was designed as a reversal print material intended for printing from Kodachrome, Ektachrome, and other makes of transparency films to produce a finished colour print without the use of a colour internegative.

In 1954, the US Supreme Court ruled that the Eastman Kodak Company were required to release technical information on the printing and processing of Kodacolor films and Kodacolor paper. This ruling also extended to the making of colour prints produced directly from Kodachrome and Ektachrome transparency films. At that time, Eastman Kodak were making Kodachrome prints and Kodachrome enlargements from colour transparencies in any size film format up to 5 inches x 4 inches. Print sizes ranged from 2¼ inches x 3¼ inches to 8 inches x 10 inches. It was possible that these prints were made on a white pigmented cellulose acetate base material similar to the Eastman Kodak “Kotavachrome” prints ten years earlier.

In the early 1950s, Eastman Kodak were also making colour prints from 35mm transparencies by first making an internegative on Kodacolor roll film, and then printing this internegative onto Kodacolor paper.
In 1953, each internegative cost 25 American cents.

At this time, there was no actual film designed for use solely as a colour internegative film, apart from certain Eastman Color negative films being used in the Motion Picture industry.

Kodak Color Print Material, Type R, originated in 1955 jointly from Kodak Pathe, at Vicennes, France, and Kodak Ltd. Harrow, UK. It was first manufactured in roll form only, in France and the UK, solely for use in Kodak processing and printing laboratories in the UK and Europe for making reversal colour prints directly from amateur photographers’ transparencies, but was later manufactured by Eastman Kodak at Rochester, New York. Eastman Kodak marketed the product in roll and various sheet sizes in the USA to colour laboratories and professional photographers.

Although 'Type R' was sold in the USA to professional photographers, and possibly amateur photographers in the late 1950s, there is no obvious evidence that the paper was marketed or distributed to anyone in the UK other than colour laboratories operated by Kodak Ltd before 1965. The paper is not listed in the UK Kodak Professional Catalogue for 1964 – 1965.

The paper was balanced for about 3200°K, and when making prints with an enlarger the colour balance was altered by the use of, at first, Kodak Color Compensating filters, and later Kodak Color Printing filters. Enlargers equipped with colour heads could also be used, such as, Agfacolor or Chromega colour heads.

It was recommended by Kodak that the enlargers were fitted with an ultra violet filter, such as a Wratten 2B, and an Infra Red cut off filter. The Infra Red filter prevented extreme red casts in the print requiring a very high cyan filtration leading to lengthy exposure times. A first trial filtration given by Kodak was “10 Yellow plus 30 Cyan” (10 — 30).

The layer arrangement was identical to Kodak Color Print Material, Type C, with the red sensitive layer on top, the green sensitive underneath the red, and the blue sensitive layer at the bottom of the pack. Unlike the material used for making Kodachrome prints, the emulsions for 'Type R' were coated onto a paper byrata–coated base. The paper was about twice as thick as Kodak single weight Bromide paper made in the UK in the mid-1950s (Bromide WSG 2S).

Processing Type R Paper, using Kodak Color Print Process P-111, from 1955
Color Print Material, Type R, was designed to be processed in Kodak Color Print Processing Chemicals, Process P-111. Process P-111 was mainly intended for deep tank and machine processing of the paper using print baskets or continuous processing machines.

In 1960, a Kodak Color Print Processing Kit for Process P-111 could be obtained in a 3½ US gallon size. This kit contained the chemicals to make the six processing solutions, the Stabilizer being made up by the user to the Kodak formula. Separate packs of the six solutions were also available in sizes of 3½ US gallons, 10 US gallons, and 25 US gallons of each processing solution excepting the Stabilizer. A First Developer Replenisher, Process P-111, and a Color Developer Replenisher, Process P-111, were available to make 5 US gallons and 25 US gallons of each solution.

This sequence is the procedure for Tank Processing, in 3 gallon tanks or larger, using the Kodak Color Print Processing Basket. Times may have been different for continuous processing machines.

Load paper in total darkness, and total darkness for first three steps.
Not permissible to handle the paper under the Wratten 10H or 10 safelights.

Solution or Wash

Temperature °F

Time (Minutes)
1. Pre-Wet

73 – 77

3
2. First Developer

75 +/– ½°F

6
3. First Stop Bath

73 – 77

4
Remaining Steps can be done in White Light.
4. Wash

73 – 77

12
5. Reversal Exposure Expose emulsion side for 15 seconds 1 foot from a No.1 Photoflood lamp.
6. Colour Developer

73 – 77

8
7. Hardener Stop Bath

73 – 77

8
8. Wash

73 – 77

3
9. Bleach

73 – 77

8
10. Wash

73 – 77

6
11. Hardener Fixing Bath

73 – 77

7
12. Wash

73 – 77

10
13. Stabilizer

73 – 77

1
14. Rinse

73 – 77

¼
15. Dry

Not over 180 °F

Total wet processing time i.e. excluding Reversal Exposure and Drying = 74¼ Minutes

Notes:-

  1. The “Pre-Wet” step was necessary to prevent “Mottle”. Mottle is the effect of uneven development, either from the First Developer or Colour Developer, or both. It shows on the print as uneven density of colour in large areas of the same tonal range, such as blue skies, or concrete roads. It is caused by the developers not being able to access the three emulsions fast enough, or developing the three layers unevenly, being “held back” by the fibres in the paper base. Print emulsions coated onto a “paper” base are much more prone to mottle than Resin Coated papers, especially in long processing sequences, such as P-111. The “Pre-Wet” step soaked the three emulsions and the paper base before the start of the First Development, to ensure a more even flow of developer through the paper.

    In total darkness, the print processing basket was placed in the Pre-Wet tank and agitated for 5 seconds, then removed for 10 seconds. This was done three more times in the first minute. For the remaining two minutes the basket was drained over the tank to prevent any excess water from diluting the First Developer.
    Once the print basket was in the First Developer, it was agitated for 30 seconds. Then the basket was lifted out of the solution and drained for 5 seconds. This agitation rate was continued every minute for the remainder of the first development time and followed for every other processing step and wash step.
    Apart from Step 1, a 15 second draining time was included in each step time.
  2. Reversal Exposure Step. Each end of the print processing basket was exposed to a No.1 Photoflood lamp for 15 seconds. Alternatively, the individual prints could be removed from the basket and their emulsion sides exposed 1 foot from the lamp for 15 seconds.
  3. The “Stabilizer” was made up to the formula:- 1¼ fluid oz. of Kodak Formaldehyde to 1 US gallon of water.
  4. Drying. It was difficult to judge colour casts on Type R material while test strips and prints were still wet. Whilst wet, prints made on Type R appeared too blue and slightly opalescent, much the same as Type C material and the later Ektacolor papers. This effect disappeared on drying.

From 1958, Kodak Color Print Material, Type R, became known as “Kodak Ektachrome Paper”.

     

Ektachrome Paper, from 1958
Ektachrome paper was available from 1958 to 1969. Its processing changed from P-111 to Ektaprint R in 1965. Both Ektachrome Paper and the later Ektachrome RC Paper (see below) could be processed using the Kodak H11-L and 16K Rapid Processors.

Up to 1965, Ektachrome Paper was exposed and processed in exactly the same way as the previous “Type R” material. There seems to have been no change in the product apart from its name.
In 1965, the processing temperature was raised to 85°F, and the process name was changed to “Ektaprint R”. The 10 degree F rise enabled the total wet processing time to be reduced to 48½ mnutes excluding drying.

Availability of Kodak Ektachrome Paper in the USA in 1960
Ektachrome paper was sold in sheet sizes from 25 sheets of 8 inches x 10 inches to 50 sheet boxes of 30 inches x 40inches. Most of the available sizes were packed in 10 and 50 sheets apart from 100 sheet boxes of 8 inches x 10 inches. Rolls of paper were obtainable in 250 foot lengths from 3½ inches wide to 8 inches wide. Other wider roll sizes were 20 inches by 50 foot and 100 foot lengths, and 40 inches by 50 foot lengths.

Only three sheet sizes were “stocked”; other sizes may have been subject to delivery delay or had to be ordered specially.

Processing Ektachrome Paper using Ektaprint R, from 1965
This processing procedure was intended for 3 gallon tank lines, dishes, and some continuous processing machines. Times may have been different in certain continuous processing machines.

Load paper in total darkness, and total darkness for first three steps.
Not permissible to handle the paper under the Wratten 10H or 10 safelights.

Solution or Wash

Temperature °F

Time (Minutes)
1. Pre-Wet

83 – 87

3
2. First Developer

85 +/– ½°F

3
3. First Stop Bath

83 – 87

2
Remaining Steps can be done in White Light.
4. Wash

83 – 87

7
5. Reversal Exposure Expose emulsion side for 15 seconds 1 foot from a No.1 Photoflood lamp.
6. Colour Developer

83 – 87

4
7. Hardener Stop Bath

83 – 87

3
8. Wash

83 – 87

2
9. Bleach

83 – 87

4
10. Wash

83 – 87

4
11. Formalin Fixer

83 – 87

4
12. Wash

83 – 87

10
13. Stabilizer

83 – 87

2
14. Rinse

83 – 87

¼
15. Dry

Not over 180 °F

Total wet processing time: 48¼ minutes.

Notes:

  1. The procedure for agitation in the Pre-Wet step and agitation in subsequent solutions was identical to P-111.
    Gaseous Burst agitation was also possible. Nitrogen or Compressed Air was used in the two deevloipers to raise their solution level about ½ inch with each burst of Nitrogen or Air. It is likely that a 1 second burst every 12 seconds was used in each solution.
  2. The “Stabilizer” for Ektaprint R was now a packaged Kodak chemical, instead of being “user make up” as in P-111.
  3. The “Hardening Fixing Bath” of P-111 was replaced by “Formalin Fixer”, as in step 11 of the above sequence. The Formalin Fixer solution was common to both Ektaprint R and Ektaprint C processes.

Ektachrome Paper was replaced by Ektachrome RC Paper in 1969.

Ektachrome RC Paper, from 1969
Kodak Ektachrome RC paper was introduced in 1969, being a Resin Coated (RC) version of the earlier Ektachrome Paper.
Prior to 1969, the non-RC Ektachrome paper emulsions were coated on a regular paper base, like Ektacolor Commercial paper. Because of the change to RC, Kodak were able to shorten tank & dish process times, as the resin coated base soaked up very little of the chemicals. Solution times and wash times were cut, and the “Pre–Soak“ step before “First Development” was eliminated. Thus, the total time for processing in Ektaprint R chemicals was reduced from 48¼ minutes to 24½ minutes.

Processing Ektachrome and Ektachrome RC Papers using the Kodak H11-L and 16K Rapid Processors, 1965 to 1973
Kodak Ektachrome RC paper was introduced in 1969, being a Resin Coated (RC) version of the earlier Ektachrome Paper. However, the Kodak Rapid processor sequence was the same for both papers.

Processing in the H11-L and 16K Rapid Processors consisted of partly using Ektaprint R chemicals and partly CP-5 chemicals.
Temperature was for the First Developer, and a 2degreeF latitude for the other chemicals and washes.

The first 4 Steps had to be in Total Darkness - the paper was so light sensitive that a safelight couldn't be used.
Processing Step

Temperature

Time, (minutes)
1. Pre-Soak

98 - 102°F

½
2. First Developer

100°F +/– ½°F

3. First Stop Bath

98 - 102°F

½
4. Wash

98 - 102°F

3
5. Reversal Exposure

Remove print from drum and expose for 15 seconds each side to a No.1 photoflood lamp
The above Step 5, plus all remaining Steps, could be done in normal room lighting.
6. Colour Developer

98 - 102°F

2 
7. Hardener Stop Bath

98 - 102°F

1 
8. Bleach

98 - 102°F

2 
9. Formalin Fixer

98 - 102°F

1 
10. Wash

98 - 102°F

2 
11. Stabilizer

98 - 102°F

2
12. Dry

98 - 102°F

As required 

Notes:

  1. Two lots of Bleach should be used, changing one for the other after 1minute.
  2. Use CP-5 Bleach, Formalin Fixer, and Stabilizer. The other chemical baths should be "Ektaprint R" i.e. First Developer, First Stop-Bath, Colour Developer and Hardener Stop-Bath.
  3. The above process never had any official name and was not mentioned in any Kodak Data books or their Colour Dataguide.
  4. The instruction sheet on “How to use Kodak Ektaprint R Chemicals” mentions that sheets of paper can be processed on the Kodak Rapid Color Processors and advises one should write to Eastman Kodak for details of the processing sequence.
  5. By 1973 the processing chemicals had gained the name “Ektaprint RD” chemicals, but now were a five solution process, based on the then new “Ektaprint R5” process.

Processing Ektachrome RC Paper using Ektaprint R, 1969 to 1973

Solution Temperature Time, (minutes)
Total Darkness
1. First Developer 85°F 29.5°C 4
2. First Stop-Bath 83-87°F 28-31°C 1
Turn on room lights
3. First Wash 83-87°F 28-31°C 4
4. Reversal Exposure. Exposure emulsion side to a No.1 Photoflood for 15 seconds at 1 foot (30cm)
5. Colour Developer 83-87°F 28-31°C 4
6. Hardener Stop-Bath 83-87°F 28-31°C 2
7. R-3 Bleach 83-87°F 28-31°C 2
8. Second Wash 83-87°F 28-31°C 1
9. Formalin-Fixer 83-87°F 28-31°C 2
10 Final Wash 83-87°F 28-31°C 3
11. Stabilizer 83-87°F 28-31°C 1
12. Rinse 83-87°F 28-31°C ½
13. Dry. Not above 200°F 93°C
Total Time: 24½ Minutes.

Notes:

  1. Developer temperature was 8°5F +/– ½°F or 29.5°C +/– 0.3°C. The other solutions and washes could be at 83-87°F or 28-31°C
  2. This particular “Ektaprint R” process was for processing “Ektachrome R.C.” paper. There was an earlier “Ektaprint R” processing procedure, designed for “Ektachrome” paper. Ektachrome paper was a fibre based product, and the earlier procedure was much longer, taking a total time of 48 ½ minutes. The older process had longer wash times, due to the fibre base of the earlier Ektachrome paper. The solution and wash temperatures were the same.
  3. This process was for batch processing in tanks, using the Kodak print baskets. It was not for continuous processing machines, although the times above could be used for processing sheets of paper in dishes.
  4. The Formalin- Fixer was the same as used for the Ektaprint C process.
  5. Ektachrome R.C. paper was only available in a “High Gloss “ surface.
     
Ektachrome RC Paper Type 1993 (in the USA from 1973)
In the USA, Kodak Ektachrome RC paper Type 1993 replaced Ektachrome RC paper in 1973 and a shortened version of the “Ektaprint R” process was introduced in 1973 as “Ektaprint R-5" with fewer solutions and washes.

Above are shown two front labels from Ektachrome RC paper, Type 1993. The top label dates from 1975 and the other label dates from 1973-74. Ektachrome RC 1993 paper was compatible with the earlier Ektaprint R seven-chemical bath process as well as the later Ektaprint R-5, five-chemical bath process. The “F” signifies a glossy surface, and the paper was also obtainable with a Silk surface, coded “Y”. Above are the back labels to the same Type 1993 packets. The top label is of the earlier packet of 1973-74 and shows the 1993 designation. The later label now includes the processes where the “R-500” replaced the earlier “Ektaprint RD” chemicals for the Kodak Rapid Processors. Both packets show the “Filter Correction” for changing between different batches of paper. Note the high Yellow filter correction on the later packet.
     

Processing Type 1993 using Ektaprint R-5, from 1973

Solution Temperature

Time, (minutes) 
Total Darkness  
1. First Developer 85°F 29.5°C

 4
2. Stop-Bath 83-87°F 28-31°C

1
Turn on room lights  
3. First Wash 83-87°F 28-31°C

4
4. Reversal Exposure. Exposure emulsion side to a No.1 Photoflood for 15 seconds at 1 foot (30cm)
5. Colour Developer 83-87°F 28-31°C

4
6. Second Wash 83-87°F 28-31°C

1
7. Bleach-Fix 83-87°F 28-31°C

3
8. Final Wash 83-87°F 28-31°C

3
9. Stabilizer 83-87°F 28-31°C

1
10. Rinse 83-87°F 28-31°C

½
11. Dry. Not above 200°F 93°C  

Total Time: 21½ minutes.

Notes:

  1. Developer temperature was 85°F +/– ½°F or 29.5°C +/– 0.3°C. Other solutions and washes: 83-87°F 28-31°C.
  2. This process was for batch processing in tanks using print baskets. The times could also be used for processing sheets of paper in trays.
  3. In 1973, the then new Ektachrome RC Type 1993 paper could be processed in either Ektaprint R or Ektaprint R-5.
  4. Ektachrome RC Type 1993 paper was obtainable at first only in “High Gloss”, “F”, surface. Later a Silk surface “Y” was also available.

Ektachrome RC Type 1993 paper could be dried in a drum dryer with the emulsion side out, or rolls of paper were fed through hot air dryers.

This Eastman Kodak publication gives information on making prints using Ektachrome RC Paper Type 1993 and processing them through Ektaprint R5 Chemicals in dishes, drums, tanks and tube type processors. This is the First Edition, First Printing, published August 1975.
     

Ektachrome 14RC Paper, from 1972
Ektachrome 14RC paper was introduced in 1972 as a direct reversal colour printing paper for making prints directly from colour transparencies. It was manufactured by Kodak Pathe at Chalon sur Saone in France. Ektachrome 14RC paper replaced Ektachrome 09RC paper which (it is believed) was the French equivalent of the Eastman Kodak Ektachrome RC paper.

At first the paper was processed in Kodak Ektaprint R chemicals but by 1974 the paper was being processed in a modified version of the Kodak Ektaprint R-5 process. The modified process was known collectively as Ektaprint R14.

     

Above: Front labels of two overlaid packets of Ektachrome 14 RC paper.

The lower blue and orange label dates from the mid to late 1970s. On the bottom of the orange part, below the letters RC, is printed “TYPE 5262”. The paper still has its RC designation.
The blue label packet dates from the early 1980s.
By then the “RC” and “Type 5262” had been omitted from the label.

Right: Rear labels of the above two packets of Ektachrome 14 RC paper.
The lower label is Ektachrome 14 RC Type 5262 paper. Both papers were made in France.
The “R 100” process (on the upper label; as well as Ektaprint R14) was for dish processing or small drums.
Note that the “Store Below” temperature is 20°C, some 10degC (13degF) higher than the recommended storage temperature for Kodak Ektacolor papers.

     

Processsing Ektachrome 14RC Paper using Ektaprint R14, from 1974


Solution Temperature Time
Total Darkness; no safelight to be used.
1. Pre-Wet 84 – 88°F 30 seconds
2. First Developer 86 +/- ½°F 3 minutes
3. Stop Bath

84 - 88°F

1½ minutes
Remaining steps can be done in normal room lighting.
4. Wash

84 - 88°F

2 minutes
5. Reversal Exposure Expose emulsion side of paper for at least 15 seconds from a 60 watt lamp at about 15 inches (38cms) distance.
6. Colour Developer 84 - 88°F 3½ minutes
7. Wash 84 - 88°F 2 minutes
8. Bleach Fix 84 - 88°F 3 minutes
9. Final Wash 84 - 88°F 3 minutes
10 Stabilizer 84 - 88°F 1 minute
11. Dry

120 - 150°F

Total time: 19½ minutes excluding drying.

Notes:

  1. This process was generally used in the Kodak Printank, or other amateur rapid processing tanks, (Paterson, Simmard, Durst etc), or the Wilkinson Drum processor.
  2. It is unlikely that the Ektaprint R14 process would have worked successfully with the American type Ektachrome paper, Ektachrome RC Type 1993, which required the Ektaprint R-5 process.
  3. A 10 second drain time was included in each processing step. This was important in Step 1, to prevent the First Developer becoming diluted with water.

Ektachrome 14RC Type 5262 Paper, from 1976
An improved version of Ektachrome 14RC paper appeared in 1976 together with three solution processing. The new paper was known as Ektachrome 14RC paper, Type 5262. It was said to have better keeping qualities and greatly increased speed compared to the previous version. Surfaces available were Glossy, F, and Lustre (semi matt), N.

Suggested three solution processing procedures at three different temperatures were published in the British Journal of Photography magazine on 15th April 1977 by Ernest C.H.Gehret. Formulae were given for the First Developer, Colour Developer, and Bleach Fix.

14RC Type 5262 was designed for making prints directly from colour transparencies. It could also be used for making copies of artworks and this included making copies of colour prints directly from a colour print, provided a method of obtaining a right way round image was employed. Starting in the mid-1970s, various colour laboratories were able to offer a “Print from Print” service to customers who sent in their colour prints instead of their negatives. This service was mainly aimed at amateur photographers, in cases where the original negative may have been lost or damaged, or where it may have been more convenient to send the colour print to the lab for additional copies. The prints obtained from the service were never as good as prints made from the negative, but provided the original print was of reasonable quality, and the contrast was not too high, a good copy could be made.

A starting filtration given by Kodak for printing from transparencies using Kodak Colour Printing filters was CP40M + CP30C (40 Magenta, 30 Cyan i.e. – 40 30).

A starting filtration for copying artworks or “Print from Print” using Kodak Colour Printing filters was CP10Y + CP25M, (10 Yellow, 25 Magenta i.e. 10 25 –).

The French instruction sheet for “Papier Kodak Ektachrome 14” dated July 1981 gives a starting filtration of “40 Bleu” = CP40M + CP40C (40 Magenta, 40 Cyan i.e. – 40 40).

Processing Ektachrome 14RC Paper Type 5262
A 3 solution process. The following is taken from the B.J Photography magazine, 15th April, 1977. These processing procedures were mainly for small amateur drums (Kodak Printank, Paterson and Durst drums and similar). It is possible the 100°F sequence could be carried out on the Kodak Rapid Processors.

Solution

Times at Different Temperatures

86°F

94°F

100°F
In Total Darkness
1. Pre-Soak

1 minute & 0 seconds

50 seconds

 40 seconds
2. First Developer

3 minutes & 0 seconds

2 minutes & 5 seconds

1 minute & 30 seconds
3. First Wash.

3 minutes & 0 seconds

2 minutes & 45 seconds

2 minutes & 30 seconds
Remaining steps can be done in normal room lighting
4. Re-Exposure. Expose emulsion side for at least 10 seconds to a 100 watt lamp at about 15 inches distance.
5. Colour Developer

3 minutes & 30 seconds

3 minutes & 15 seconds

3 minutes
6. Rinse

1 minute & 0 seconds

50 seconds

40 seconds
7. Bleach Fix

3 minutes & 30 seconds

3 minutes & 15 seconds

3 minutes
8. Final Wash

3 minutes & 30 seconds

3 minutes & 15 seconds

3 minutes
9. Dry.

120 – 150°F

Notes:

  1. The drum should be drained for at least ½ minute after pouring out the Pre-Soak water before pouring in the First Developer.
  2. The First Wash should have a minimum of 4 changes of water. The rinse after the Colour Developer should have two changes of water.
  3. For more precise First Development timing a Stop-Bath can be included between the First Developer and First Wash for ½ minute; 48 ml (28% acetic acid) to 1 litre is suggested.
  4. 10 seconds drain time, excepting the Pre-Soak, should be included in each step.
     

Processing Ektachrome 14RC Paper Type 5262 in Ektaprint R14, from 1978
This process was for tank and dish processing.

Solution Temperature Time
Total Darkness; a 10 second drain time is included in each step.
1. Pre-Soak 86 – 88°F 4 minutes
2. First Developer 86 +/- ½°F 3 minutes
3. Stop Bath

86 +/- ½°F

1½ minutes
4. Wash

82 - 95°F

3 minutes
Remaining steps can be done in normal room lighting.
5. Reversal Exposure Expose emulsion side of print 15 seconds from 100 watt lamp about 15 inches (38cms) distance.
6. Colour Developer 86 +/- ½°F 3¼ minutes
7. Wash 82 - 95°F 1½ minutes
8. Bleach Fix (tank A) 86 +/- ½°F 1½ minutes
9. Bleach Fix (tank B)

86 +/- ½°F

1½ minutes
10. Final Wash 82 - 95°F 3¼ minutes
11. Stabilizer 86 +/- ½°F 1½ minutes
12. Rinse

82 - 95°F

15 seconds
13. Dry

Not over 190°F

Total time: 24 minutes 15 seconds, not including the Re-Exposure.

Notes:

  1. Two Bleach Fix tanks were recommended for tank processing.
  2. The Bleach Fix solutions could be “regenerated” by passing air through the used solutions and then adding a Bleach Fix Regenerator to make a “regenerated” Bleach Fix replenisher.
  3. The temperature latitude for the Stop Bath, Bleach Fix, and Stabilizer seems to be in excessively narrow limits. Temperatures of 84°F to 88°F would have been perfectly adequate.

Ektachrome 19 Paper, from 1980
Kodak introduced Ektachrome 19 paper in 1980 as a direct reversal printing material designed for photography of artworks or any flat copy, such as “Prints from Prints”. The paper was said to produce cleaner whites and greater shadow detail when used with flat copies compared to Ektachrome 14 paper Type 5262. Processing was carried out in Ektaprint R14 chemicals, or Ektaprint R14-3 chemicals. The paper was available in Glossy (F), and Smooth Lustre (N), in sheets and rolls. It was not a replacement for Ektachrome 14 paper, Type 5262.

By this time the “RC” abbreviation had been dropped from Ektachrome papers in some of the Kodak handbooks and literature.

Also by 1980, Kodak Ektaprint R14-3 processing kits were listed in the “Kodak Professional Catalogue 1980/81” published in May 1980. The kits were mainly for dish processing in a 1 litre size, or in small discard processors, such as the Kodak printank, Durst, Simmard tanks and similar, in a 5 litre size. The three solution kits contained the First Developer, Colour Developer and Bleach Fix.

The “Kodak Professional Buyers’ Guide” for January 1981 also lists Kodak Ektaprint R14 chemicals in large quantities, including the Stop Bath and Stabilizer for 5 solution processing of Ektachrome 14 paper Type 5262 and Ektachrome 19 paper. It is believed that Ektachrome 19 paper was being made in the UK, as it is listed in the “Kodak Professional Buyers’ Guide” for January 1981 as “Kodak Ektachrome 19 Paper, F and N.
Ektachrome 14 Type 5262 is listed as “Papier Kodak Ektachrome 14 RC, F (and N), Type 5262. At this time “19 paper” was available in rolls as wide as 106 cms. (41¾ inches) in 15 metre lengths.

Processing Ektachrome 14RC Type 5262 and Ektachrome 19 Papers in Ektaprint R-3, from 1980
This table gives the summary of processing steps for a tank line or dish processing, and dates from 1980.

Solution Temperature Time
Total Darkness; a 10 second drain time is included in each step.
1. Pre-Soak 86 – 88°F 4 minutes
2. First Developer 86 +/- ½°F 3¼ minutes
3. Wash

82 - 95°F

4½ minutes
Remaining steps can be done in normal room lighting.
4. Reversal Exposure Expose emulsion side of print 15 seconds from 100 watt lamp about 15 inches (38cms) distance.
5. Colour Developer 86 +/- ½°F 3 minutes
6. Wash 82 - 95°F 1½ minutes
7. Bleach Fix (tank A) 86 +/- ½°F 1½ minutes
8. Bleach Fix (tank B)

86 +/- ½°F

1½ minutes
9. Final Wash 82 - 95°F 5 minutes
10. Dry

Not over 190°F

Total time: 24 minutes 30 seconds, not including the Reversal Exposure step.

Notes.

  1. Wash times in steps 3 and 9 were increased to compensate for the Stop Bath and Stabilizer steps being omitted.
  2. Ektachrome 14 and 19 papers could be processed using either the 5 bath or the 3 bath sequences but, by 1982, 3 bath processing had become standard practice
   

Ektachrome 22 Paper, from 1984
Ektachrome 22 paper was for making prints directly from transparencies and was processed in Kodak Ektachrome R3 chemicals. It replaced Ektachrome 14 paper in 1984. Note that Ektachrome 19 paper (see text above) was a more specialist paper, while Ektachrome 22 was a replacement for the previous conventional reversal printing paper, Ektachrome 14.

Below are shown images of the front and back labels from a box of Ektachrome 22 paper. This box dates from the mid to late 1980s.

The rear label (right, below) shows storage and handling information, catalogue number, and surface F = Glossy.

It was still being sold in 1990 and the year when its supply finished is uncertain. The Kodak US catalogue for 1992 lists Ektachrome Radiance paper, but it’s believed that the US papers were different to the French/U.K. papers. Research will continue, but UK Kodak catalogues of any age are getting increasingly difficult to find.

   

   

Experiences of Printing on Ektachrome RC Paper

Michael Talbert took opportunity in early 1971, while in his final year at Art College, to make some prints using Ektachrome RC reversal paper. Most were from 5 x 4inch Ektachrome Process E3 sheet film transparencies. He printed these to 10 x 8inch for his final College Portfolio. He used the college's Beseler black & white enlarger equipped with an Agfa colour head (similar to the blue coloured Agfacolor head here).

Each packet of Ektachrome RC paper was marked with a + and – filtration value of Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. These figures were given for working out the filtration when changing from one batch of paper to another (see photograph alongside, being two labels from the back of packets of Ektachrome RC paper showing “Filter Correction” for altering the filtration when changing batches of paper).

A six page instruction leaflet was included in every packet of Ektachrome RC paper which gave a trial starting filtration of 25 Magenta and 10 Yellow, made up of Kodak Colour Printing filters. Using the Agfa colour head, Michael found himself using a very low Yellow filter setting and a Magenta filter varying from 10 to 87. A few prints were made with a low Cyan filter setting and a high Magenta filter. (Agfacolor head filter units were approximately two thirds the strength of Kodak Colour Printing filters).

Around this same time, Michael was also making prints from colour negatives on Ektacolor Commercial paper using the same enlarger. Hence, it was easy to make comparisons between the two different types of colour print. He found that the Ektachrome RC paper was at least a stop faster than Ektacolor Commercial, and was also much more forgiving to exposure errors

When filtering Ektachrome RC paper, it was necessary to add or subtract 20 to 30 filter units on the Agfacolor head to correct a fairly strong cast. Half this filter change, or less, was sufficient to correct the same strength of colour cast on Ektacolor Commercial paper. Filtrations on Ektacolor Commercial paper were normally very high Yellow and high Magenta values.

Handling and Processing
Although in 1966 Michael had made some black and white prints on a waterproof base Bromide paper, this was the first time he had any experience of a Resin Coated (RC - waterproof) colour paper. Ektachrome RC paper had to be handled in total darkness, not a disadvantage as it was easy to tell the emulsion side in the dark due to the very high glossy surface.

Ektacolor RC was slightly thicker than Ektacolor Commercial, handling like a sheet film with more rigidity than a double weight black and white paper.

All prints were processed on a Kodak Rapid Color Processor Model H11-L, and took over 15 minutes wet processing time for one 8 x 10inch or one 11 x 14inch prints. Test strips were processed up to the Bleach stage, washed briefly, and dried for assessment.

It was easier to judge colour casts and exposure density after drying as, when wet, Ektachrome RC prints took on a blue appearance and looked too dark.

A box of 50 sheets of Ektachrome RC paper, size 11 inch x 14 inch dating from 1971.
The 11 x 14 inch paper was provided by the Art College for use by all students.

Two of Michael's 8 x 10 inch Ektachrome RC prints have survived from 1971. Looking at them closely they both give the impression of being slightly unsharp, compared with an equivalent size print on Ektacolor or Agfacolor paper. The most noticeable defect in both prints is the lack of shadow detail. The shadow areas seem to be very dark, detail almost disappears in one print. Highlight detail is reproduced well, and both prints have good, if not excessive contrast. The contrast level on Ektachrome RC paper was much higher than Kodak Ektacolor Commercial paper; prints appeared much “brighter”.

Blacks were very dense, with no hint of colour cast, but this is true of most reversal materials and duplicating films. A clean white without a colour cast was almost impossible to reproduce, mainly due to very minor fluctuations in first and colour development times and temperatures on the H11-L machine.

As Ektachrome RC paper had so much latitude to filtering, it was difficult at times to “home in” on a filtration which gave no colour cast in the print. This may have been partly due to Michael's inexperience of colour printing at that time, but also he was trying (in his final college year) to become proficient with a variety of colour paper and film material, plus attempting to produce the occasional colour internegative.

After leaving Art College, Michael found he never made prints on reversal printing material at any colour laboratory that he in, as nearly all professional colour laboratories made prints from transparencies via an internegative. This way of working had several advantages. The contrast of the resulting print could be changed according to the contrast of the transparency when exposing the internegative. Also, the shadow to highlight balance could be altered by varying the filtration of the internegative at the time of exposure. Very little contrast variation was possible when processing a colour reversal paper. If the development times were shortened, to hopefully give a softer contrast print, other problems occurred, such as less dense blacks, or colour contrast differences, e.g pink highlights and green shadows.

Another reason why internegatives were preferred is due to processing costs. Internegatives could be processed through an existing C-41 processing machine, together with camera sheet and roll films. A separate processing line or machine was necessary to process reversal colour paper, and the machine could not be used to process any other type of material.



Duplicating Transparencies

What is Duplicating?
Duplicating, in the photographic sense, means making a copy of, in most cases, a colour transparency. Basically, the working procedure is to:

  • Either, photograph with a camera, a colour transparency illuminated by a diffuse light source such as a lightbox, or
  • Print a transparency directly onto a piece of film, which when processed by reversal processing, (E2, E3, E4, or E6, see above,) will produce another transparency.

There are other ways of making copies of colour transparencies, but this section describes the procedure and types of films when copying (duplicating) onto reversal films, in which the end-product, after processing, is a transparency.

Many years ago, duplicate transparencies were being made from “Reseau” or “Screen” colour photographic plates and films by re-photographing them onto another “Reseau” plate. The reader who is interested in such early methods, would be advised to find a copy of the book :
“Colour Photography in Practice”, by D.A. Spencer, Third Edition, published in 1948, where a whole chapter is devoted to the subject of duplicating Autochrome and Dufacolor screen plates and films.

Kodachrome as a Duplicating Film
It is possible that by 1938, Kodachrome duplicate transparencies were being made at Rochester, N.Y. by Eastman Kodak Company from 35mm original Kodachrome transparencies, most likely being 'same size' duplicates. Certainly, by 1941, 35mm and larger duplicates were being made at Rochester from Kodachrome originals in 35mm (same size duplicates) and from Kodachrome sheet film (enlarged duplicates). The largest size duplicate which could be made at that time was 11inches by 14inches.

In 1941, Kodachrome Duplicating Film Type 5265 was used specifically for duplicating 16mm Kodachrome motion picture film. It is possible that a similar type of film was used for copying 35mm Kodachrome slides.
In “Colour Transparencies”, first edition, written by C. Leslie Thomson, published in 1948, two references are of special interest.

In Chapter 16 “Duplication”, he states that “Kodak have recently developed a special material for the duplication of Kodachrome, but this is not yet available for general use” The material being referred to is most likely “Kodachrome Duplicating Film Type 5265” (see above). He goes on to state that, in the USA, Eastman Kodak were offering “a special 35mm duplicating service by which masked copies of Kodachrome originals might be obtained. These special duplicates are known as Kodachrome Duplicates M”

This probably refers to the service where Eastman Kodak were printing large sheet film transparency duplicates from Kodachrome 35mm originals, in which case a black and white negative contrast mask was first made from the transparency and then this mask was combined with the transparency when printing the duplicate to reduce contrast. For same size duplicates, i.e. 35mm to 35mm, the author believes Kodak didn't use any masking system. For an explanation of the term 'masking', see the next Section.

Original Kodachrome Professional sheet film transparencies may have been printed directly onto ”Kodachrome Professional Type B” sheet film, using an enlarger to make the exposures. At that time, the Type B sheet film was manufactured in sizes up to 11inches by 14inches.

From the late 1950s there were various Kodachrome films on the market specially made for duplicating transparencies. One of them (from 1960) was “Kodachrome Film for Duplicate Printing, Type 5294”, sold in 50 foot or 400 foot lengths, and balanced for tungsten illumination. Being Kodachrome, it had to be processed by Kodak. The price of the film included processing, but the processing plant required it returned in lengths longer than 15 feet.

Duplicating Transparencies by the Unsharp Mask Technique
When copying an original colour transparency onto another transparency film, either by photographing it in a camera or printing it by contact or making an enlarged or reduced copy with an enlarger, it is usual for the resulting copy to exhibit much higher contrast than the original. This happens with almost all photographic materials when used to make a copy of an original photograph, be it a colour slide or a print.

Normal colour film, as used in cameras, is designed to make an accurate reproduction of natural colours in bright or hazy sunlight, or in correctly balanced artificial light depending on the type of film, Type A or Type B. The contrast of the film is matched to average daylight scenes or artificial studio lighting, and will reproduce the natural contrast in such scenes provided the film is processed according to the manufacturers’ instructions.

When the same film is used to make a reproduction of an existing photographic image (colour transparency or colour print), the camera film cannot accurately reproduce the colour in the image being copied, partly:
a) because the contrast of the reproduction increases due to the film, especially transparency film, not being matched to the needs of copying a photographic image, and
b) partly because camera film is designed to reproduce “natural” dyes, and not “artificial” dyes as found in a photographic image (colour transparency or colour print).

If camera film is used to make a reproduction transparency i.e. duplicate, it is likely that accurate reproduction will be impossible, due to certain pastel colours shifting towards the principal colour in their make up, such as pinks going too red, or greens going cyan. It is usually impossible to correct these colour shifts by using colour printing filters. Also, with a contrast increase, highlights burn out, and shadows turn black and detail is lost.

The only way camera film can be used to make duplicates is by making a black and white negative contrast mask and then printing the transparency/mask combination onto camera sheet film.
The mask is made by printing the transparency onto a black and white panchromatic sheet film. The desired result is a very much underexposed black and white negative showing only the highlights and a very faint suggestion of the mid-tones. The mask is made “Unsharp”, as a perfectly sharp mask is extremely difficult to register exactly with the transparency that is to be duplicated. An unsharp mask effect is created by including a physical “spacer” between the transparency and the unexposed black and white film, and then making the exposure with the transparency on top, spacer in the middle, and black and white film on the bottom. Exposure is by contact printing using the enlarger as a light source. The “spacer” was a clear piece of unexposed and fixed black and white film. The mask, produced by processing the black & white film below the clear film 'spacer', is (almost) a clear piece of black and white film, but with the original's highlights showing feintly.

The purpose of the mask is to hold back some of the light from the original's highlight areas, giving the shadow areas of the duplicate transparency more exposure, thus lightening the shadows in the duplicate.
Colours, such as greens, could be made lighter in the duplicate by exposing the mask with a magenta filter. Then any green light in the original, when exposing the mask, reduces the exposure in the green areas on the black and white film. Then, when the duplicate is made using the black and white mask, the mask allows more green light through, making the greens lighter on the duplicate.
This works for any colour, e.g. a yellow filter lightens blues and a red filter lightens cyans, to give two examples.

Eastman Kodak published an article on this procedure in the 1950s. This was a 12 page booklet entitled: "Making Duplicate Transparencies in Sheet Film Sizes”, No.E 28, published in 1956.

Over forty years ago, the author attempted to make some duplicate transparencies by this method, but found it was much more difficult than by using duplicating film. Most of the difficulties arose when trying to achieve the correct contrast on the black and white mask, but he could see that, if he had persevered, the duplicates made would have been of very high quality. As far as he can remember, he made three or four 5inch by 4inch duplicates, and at least one 10inch by 8inch duplicate, by the masking method, but as the price of the camera film was at least three times the price of normal duplicating film, he decided to give up the masking method because the cost (in time and materials) was prohibitive.

The economic answer was to use a 'Duplicating' film (see next Section) designed specifically for producing duplicate transparencies without the need for masking.

Early Ektachrome Duplicating Materials
Films made specially for duplicating have inherently low contrast characteristics and, when processed correctly, the resulting duplicate matches the contrast of an average camera exposed correctly processed transparency, or very nearly so. Also, the dyes generated by colour development of Ektachrome Duplicating Films were specifically designed to “match”, or be very similar to, the dyes found in correctly processed transparencies.

In the case of a transparency of extreme contrast it was possible when processing the duplicate, to decrease the First Development time slightly, but this would often lead to colour balance changes, poor blacks, and a loss of saturation in the colours. If it was especially important to make a good reproduction of a transparency with an extreme contrast range, a black and white 'unsharp mask' would have to be made (see above) even when using Duplicating Film.

Another way to duplicate such a transparency would have been to make an internegative from the transparency where the contrast could be changed when exposing the internegative film, and then printing the internegative onto Ektacolor or Vericolor Print Film.

The earliest reference that Michael Talbert has found to any kind of Ektachrome Duplicating film is a short paragraph in the British Journal of Photography Almanac (BJPA) for 1951. In the “Epitome of Progress” section it states that Eastman Kodak have introduced an “Ektachrome Duplicating Film”, designed for making duplicate transparencies directly from Kodachrome and Ektachrome original transparencies. The author goes on to say that “the quality of these duplicates is claimed to be equal to that of the original transparency.” Unfortunately he omits to tell us what film format the new duplicating film is, i.e. 35mm or sheet, or any other useful details about the film.

Michael possess a great many publications by Eastman Kodak company, plus many books on colour photography and processing colour films dating from the 1950s, but cannot find any other reference to this duplicating film in any of these publications, so perhaps this was a premature announcement of material that didn't, at that time, become commercial.

By 1963 Eastman Kodak were making “Ektachrome Reversal Print Film, Type 5386” in 35mm size only. Excepting the above uncertain reference, this was the first Ektachrome film made specifically for duplicating transparencies. Ektachrome Reversal Print Film was sold in 100 foot lengths, and was designed for exposing with a tungsten light source, at a recommended exposure time of about 1 second.

In the mid-1960s, Eastman Kodak were marketing “Special Color Duplicating Film, SO-271” in sheet film format. The film is mentioned in the “Kodak Color Dataguide”, 3rd edition, published in 1966. The film may have been a sheet film version of Ektachrome Reversal Print film, designed for processing in E2 or E3 processes, and later E4. The “S.O.” number meant that the film could be withdrawn from the market at any time.

Ektachrome Duplicating Film, from 1967

In 1967, Eastman Kodak introduced “Ektachrome Duplicating Film”, a sheet film sold in 4x5 inch and 8x10 inch formats. It was intended for making large size duplicate transparencies from Kodachrome and Ektachrome original transparencies. The film base was thinner than the Ektachrome Daylight Type and Type B films for camera use (see above). The base thickness was very similar to 35mm Ektachrome films, but slightly thicker than the roll film Ektachrome.

The film was balanced for tungsten illumination and could be used for contact printing or enlarging. Handling was in total darkness; no safelight was permissible. A supplementary data sheet was included with each box of film giving the correction filters, and a suggested increase or decrease in exposure (calculated in stops), from the “normal” exposure, or the exposure compared with the last batch of film used.

A four page instruction sheet suggested a trial exposure, (if using the film for the first time), of 1 second, and to make three or four test exposures at this time, each exposure being 1 stop apart. The instructions also mention that the exposure time could be increased, but if so the quality of the duplicates may be affected because of the reciprocity failure of the film.

Processing was in E3 chemicals, (see above), but dedicated First Developer and Colour Developer were recommended for the duplicating film if processing was carried out using an existing E3 process line.

Below are shown boxes for the Ektachrome Duplicating films, 6119, 6120, and 6121 for the E3 and E6 processes. As shown on the 6120 box, by 1971 most of the Kodak sheet films, black and white, and colour, were being packed without the interleaving sheets of black paper, starting with the American made films.

The supplementary data, included in the instruction sheet for the 8 x 10 inch 6121 E6 duplicating film, suggests a filtration of 30Y+20C, a 30 Yellow and a 20 Cyan filter, (30 – 20), as a starting filtration assuming the film was exposed for a 10 second trial exposure. A supplementary data sheet, packed separately from the instruction sheet, for the Ektachrome Duplicating film, size 8 x 10 inches dated “JAN 1970”, gave 20M+30Y, a 20 Magenta filter and a 30 Yellow filter, (30 20 --), as a starting filtration. The sheet also advises that all exposures must be increased by 1 stop.

This assumes the exposure time given for a test duplicate is 1 second for an emulsion rated at “normal” speed.

Because of differences in exposing equipment, light sources, and processing techniques, the filtrations given in the supplementary data sheets were only of use for calculating the new filtration when changing over from one batch of duplicating film to another.

     

Alongside is shown the rear label of a box of Ektachrome Duplicating Film, dated January 1970.

Ektachrome Duplicating Film 6119 from 1969
In 1969 the original duplicating film film was renamed as 6119 and was sold in 4x5 inch, 50 sheet boxes, and 8x10 inch, 10 and 50 sheet boxes. The 6119 film was exactly the same as Ektachrome Duplicating Film from 1967. For reasons best known to themselves, Eastman Kodak added the film number, which had previously been stamped on the left hand side of the box, to the sealing label. They started doing this about 1968 in the US and then Kodak Limited (London) followed suit in 1969 to 1970 with film made in the U.K.

Ektachrome Duplicating Film 6119 in use
From January 1971 to April 1971, the author made many 10 inch by 8 inch duplicate transparencies on Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6119, mainly from Ektachrome daylight and Type B sheet film original transparencies, size 4 inch by 5 inch. The duplicates were enlarged and exposed on Beseler enlargers, one of which was fitted with an Agfacolor Head and the other fitted with a filter draw. The filters used within the filter draw were Kodak Colour Printing filters (CP).

The duplicating film was balanced for a 3200°K light source and the instruction sheet enclosed in each box of film suggested an exposure time of 1 second. It also stated that the exposure time could be increased, but the quality of the duplicates would be adversely affected. It is quite possible that this film was a sheet film version of Ektachrome Reversal Print Film (Ektachrome Reversal Print Film Type 5386; see above). The sheet film and the 35mm film both required the same test exposure, so they could have been similar films, if not identical. The thin film base of the sheet film was very close to 35mm film thickness. The author has recently (Feb 2013) found that "Amazingly, four of my 8 by 10 inch duplicates which I made on the thin base 6119 film have survived. They don’t seem to have faded much either, having been dark stored for the past 42 years !"

The film speed was extremely slow when used in the Beseler enlargers. A 5 inch by 4 inch Ektachrome transparency enlarged to make an 8 inch by 10 inch duplicate would require an exposure time of around 20 to 25 seconds at F5.6 to F8, F5.6 being the largest available aperture. This exposure time was 25 times the recommended length of exposure. A slightly over exposed (hence too little density) 6 cms by 6 cms (2¼ inch square) transparency, enlarged to 8 inches square, required 30 seconds exposure, plus an increase in the first development time to prevent the duplicate from becoming too dark. This was the only 6 cms by 6 cms transparency from which Michael attempted to make an enlarged duplicate, and was done because the original transparency was slightly over exposed.

The filtrations on the Agfacolor Head, (see the Agfacolor section), and using the Kodak Colour Printing filters, were mainly in the region of 80 yellow to 110 yellow, and from 55 magenta to 85 magenta. The filtrations were fairly similar between the enlargers but the bulbs in the enlargers were different. The Agfacolor heads took a massive bulb, 5 inches long and 250 watts, while the Beseler black and white enlargers took a 150 watt bulb. Thus, it is probably pure chance that the filtrations were similar, considering a) the different types of filter, CP filters in the Beseler and the Agfacolor head filters, plus b) the colours of the inside of the enlargers. Hence, maybe the colour of condensers or the characteristics of the enlarging lenses, coincidentally made the colour of the light coming out of the enlargers a close match.

Increasing the exposures to over 20 seconds caused the duplicating film to turn green. Increasing the magenta filter in the Agfacolor Head or adding more Kodak CP magenta filters to the filter pack, only served to increase the exposure time further. Because of this increase in exposure, it was impossible to make 10 inch by 8 inch duplicates from 6 cms by 6 cms transparencies, unless they were over exposed (low density) like the example referred to above.

Another problem was Contrast. Unless the transparency to be duplicated was of abnormally soft contrast, almost all duplicates exhibited an increased contrast compared to the original, despite the duplicating film having low contrast characteristics.

     

Lowering the Contrast by “Flashing”
One way of lowering the contrast was by “fogging” the duplicate after the main exposure. This was known as "Flashing".

Directly after the main exposure, the transparency was removed from the negative carrier and a Kodak Wratten Neutral Density filter, No.96, was placed under the lens of the enlarger. The duplicating film was then exposed again for the same time as the main exposure, leaving the CP filters in the enlarger, or the same filtration dialed in to the Agfacolor Head. Occasionally the “flash” exposure gave a colour cast to the shadow area of the duplicate. This could be corrected by adding a CP filter, or increasing the appropriate dial filter setting on the Agfacolor head, when exposing the duplicate to the flash exposure. A magenta filter would correct a green cast in the shadow area, a cyan filter would correct a red cast, and so on.

This method worked fairly well on the whole. All the duplicates Michael made in those days on 6119 Duplicating film were exposed with a "Flashing" exposure.

A typical duplicate exposure would be written:
85Y + 60M or 85 60 –
25 secs F5.6
Flash 20 seconds with 10M.

The flash exposure could be varied according to the amount of contrast reduction. The Flash exposure was 1/100 of the main exposure if both exposures were equal (due to the light reducing power of the Neutral Density filter No.96).

Lowering the Contrast by Chemical Means
Another method of reducing the contrast of the duplicate was to alter the chemical composition of the Colour Developer, by adding Citrazinic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide. The modified colour developer had to be kept for duplicating film use only, but it was recommended that separate First and Colour Developers were used for the duplicating film even without the chemical modification. If the contrast resulting from using the modified colour developer was slightly high, then the Flashing technique could be used to lower the contrast to an acceptable level. If the contrast turned out to be too low, a new batch of colour developer had to be mixed with lower quantities of the two additional chemicals.

The Colour Developer was altered by adding:
Citrazinic Acid: 1.4 grams per litre.
Sodium Hydroxide: 0.75 grams per litre.

Processing the Duplicates
The duplicates were difficult to process because of a very thin film base. They were processed in a “Colenta” machine, which consisted of a film holder revolving in a trough of chemicals (or water, during the wash steps). The chemicals (E3 process) were measured and then put into seven reservoirs in order of sequence. The film was then loaded into the film holder, the lid closed on the machine and the first developer was released from it’s reservoir into the trough. The machine was then switched on, and the film holder began revolving in the trough.

The duplicating film had to be handled carefully when exposing and processing. Marks and scratches on the film were common, mainly being caused during processing.

Because of the very low speed of the duplicating film, necessitating much longer exposures than recommended, very dark shadow areas showed no detail in them and reproduced as completely black. The black areas looked greenish when viewed with a fairly strong light source behind the duplicate.

(Footnote: Many years later the author used this odd characteristic, of completely black shadows with no detail in them, while making a digital colour print of a simulated 1920s fashion picture. The colours were desaturated, contrast was lowered, and the shadow areas were made progressively darker until the deepest shadow areas became completely black. Colour prints actually produced in the 1920s were made from colour separation negatives photographed directly from the subject. Tri Chrome Carbro and Jos Pe were two principal methods for making colour prints in those days. The Jos Pe method of making colour prints was a very early version of a process similar to Kodak Dye Transfer).

Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6120 from 1971
During 1971, Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6119 was replaced by Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6120. This was a much faster film, and the recommended exposure time for trial exposures was increased to 10 seconds. It was intended for making large size duplicates from Kodachrome and Ektachrome original transparencies.

Like the previous duplicating film, processing was carried out in E3 chemicals with a shorter First Development time and a higher agitation rate in the First Developer. The film could be processed in the same First and Colour Developers of an existing E3 processing line but, because of the shorter time in the First Developer and higher agitation rate, it was recommended that the duplicating film was processed separately from the regular camera sheet films. The First Developer time was 6 minutes at 75 +/– ½°F when processing the duplicating film

The new film had the same base thickness as the E3 camera sheet films. Therefore, if need be, the duplicates could be butted up together with the camera sheet films for use in displays.

In use, trial exposures of 10 seconds were suggested using tungsten illumination, exposing with the filters recommended in the supplementary data sheet enclosed with each box of film. Three exposures of 10 seconds each were made at three intensity levels, usually at one stop intervals, varying the lens aperture rather than the time.

In the U.K. in 1973, the film was available for sale in sizes from 4 inches by 5 inches to 12 inches by 15 inches in quantities of 25 sheets per box. It sold for a somewhat lower price than the Process E3 camera sheet films.

Duplicating Film 6120, In Use
Michael Talbert made many 10 inch by 8 inch duplicates on this film and (below) he describes his experiences of using the film.

Most of the duplicates were made on a Durst 138 enlarger with a CLS 300 colour head, and some duplicates were made, in 1972, on a De Vere “75” floor standing black and white enlarger fitted with an Agfacolor head. The Durst 138 negative carrier accommodated negatives or transparencies from 35mm to 4 inches by 5 inches. The enlarger was equipped with two lamps, one each side of a mirror box, containing two mirrors, each angled at 45 degrees directing light downwards through a diffuser, placed on top of a vertical “mirror tunnel”. At the bottom of the “mirror tunnel” was another diffuser, with the negative carrier underneath the diffuser. A set of dichroic filters, yellow, magenta and cyan, were fitted in front of each lamp, the lamps, filters, and mirror box were contained in a large rectangular box at the top of the enlarger. Three control knobs outside the box were used to dial the dichroic filters in and out of the light path. The maximum filtration that could be dialed of each colour was 80 units.

It is difficult to make comparisons with strengths of filters but the filter strength on the CLS 300 colour head were slightly stronger than the Kodak Colour Printing range of filters and possibly twice the strength of the filters fitted in an Agfacolor head (see Agfa section). A Kodak Colour Printing filter of 50 units would have been the equivalent of dialing in 35 units into the CLS 300 colour head.

Duplicating Film 6120, Exposure Times
Most duplicate exposures made on the Durst 138 enlarger were in the region of 10 seconds to 25 seconds. It was found that exposures of less than 7 seconds decreased the contrast of the resulting duplicate beyond an acceptable level. The 6120 film was manufactured with low contrast characteristics, taking into account the inevitable contrast increase when copying colour transparencies. Most duplicates exhibited a contrast level matching the average Ektachrome or Kodachrome transparency. The “Flashing” method of decreasing the contrast, or any changing of the chemical formula of the colour developer, were never found to be necessary when duplicating on the 6120 film. (see: Ektachrome Duplicating Film 6119).

Although exposures below 7 seconds tended to decrease the contrast of the resulting duplicate, long exposures made little or no difference to the contrast, but as the film had a fairly high speed, exposure times beyond 25 seconds were very rare.

Duplicating Film 6120, Filtration Techniques
A supplementary data sheet was included in each box of film along with an instruction sheet. The supplementary sheet gave a trial filtration for that particular emulsion number. Because of the vast differences between enlarging equipment and colour heads, the suggested filters were only useful for calculating the filtration when changing from one batch of film to another.

When making duplicates on the Durst 138 enlarger it was usual to dial all three filters into the colour head, starting with a filtration for a trial duplicate of 60 20 40 (i.e. 60 yellow, 20 magenta, 40 cyan).

Printing with three filters had two advantages.

  1. the exposure time was increased slightly so that the operator was more certain of exposing the film at a minimum exposure time of 10 seconds, even with over exposed transparencies.
  2. Secondly, it was easier to filter the duplicate in this way. If the first test duplicate resulted in a yellow cast, either the yellow filter could be reduced, or the magenta and cyan filters could be increased. The neutral density in the filtration (see Note below) made negligible difference to the exposure time because of the high speed of the duplicating film, and the latitude of the exposure range on duplicating film. Michael aimed to make exposures within the 10 to 25 second range without having to expose through the wider apertures of the enlarging lenses. Most exposures were made at f 11 to f 16. These were possibly the sharpest apertures of the lenses.

Note: Neutral density in filtrations means that a certain amount of “Gray” colour is present in the filtration. A filtration of (say), 65 15 50 has 15 “gray”, in it. The filtration without the "gray" would be 50 – 35. (i.e. 50 yellow, zero magenta , 35 cyan). The “gray” colour does not alter the colour of the duplicate, but does (slightly) increase the printing exposure required.

This 3 colour method of filtering the colour balance of a duplicate (or colour print), went against the advice given to beginners in colour printing where the vast majority of books, manuals, photographic magazine etc. articles on the subject recommended that at least one printing filter should always remain at zero, i.e. such articles advised that it was never necessary to dial all three colours into the colour head, or place three different colour filters in the filter draw. However, the 3 filtration method was a technique which Michael used for convenience with 6120 Duplicating Film, though he never used this technique when making prints from colour negatives. But the 3 filtration method would have worked when printing on any type of multi-layer colour material, as long as the printer realized that any filtration with three colour printing filters has an element of "gray" within the filtration which must increase the printing exposure compared to using the 2 filtration method.

The duplicates exposed on Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6120 were of very high quality and it was possible to make a much improved copy from an under-exposed original transparency, improving both the colour and the density. Over-exposed originals could be improved, but not to the same extent and the results often showed colour mis-matches from high-light to shadow areas. (Pink highlights, green shadows as an example). Even so, the 6120 duplicating film had far more latitude in exposure compared to making colour prints from colour negatives.

Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6121 from 1977
From 1976 to 1978, Ektachrome films for Process E3 and E4 were gradually phased out in favour of the then new Ektachrome Process E6 films. Duplicating film was no exception and “Ektachrome Duplicating Film, 6121” was introduced in 1977.

In use, it was similar to the previous 6120 E3 duplicating film, with approximately the same speed using the same exposure times. (10 seconds for a trial exposure using tungsten illumination).

The film could be processed with E6 camera films, as there was no need for a reduced First Development time. The First Development time for all E6 films was 6 minutes at 100 +/– ½°F.

In the U.K. the “Kodak Buyers’ Guide” for January 1981 listed film sizes up to 16inches by 20 inches in 25 sheet boxes. By the mid-1980s some sizes were available in 50 sheet boxes.

Ektachrome Duplicating Film Type K, 7121 from early 1990s
In the early 1990s, Eastman Kodak introduced 7121 duplicating film in sheet film format specially for making large duplicate transparencies from 35mm and 120 size Kodachrome originals. It was intended to give an improved colour rendering as compared to the 6121 film when duplicating Kodachrome transparencies.

It was available in sheet film sizes up to 8inches by 10inches with larger sizes to special order. 10 seconds trial exposure was recommended using tungsten illumination.

All Duplicating Films were to be handled in total darkness; no safelight was permissable.

     


Michael Talbert
Process E2 was the first colour process Michael Talbert used. He purchased a kit of E2 chemicals and a roll of Ektachrome X film, using money someone had given him for Christmas in December 1966, and processed the Ektachrome X film at school in January 1967. It was hard work. The school darkroom in January was the coldest place on the planet ! There was only a cold water tap and no way of heating the processing solutions, and he had to run up to the toilets every now and again to fetch hot water to heat the solutions. He recalls having a dish warmer with a thermostat to keep the developing tank near the right temperature. Despite all this, the finished transparencies were fairly good; "I’ve seen worse !" They were a bit dark, but he thinks this was due to under exposure. He did’nt have an exposure meter at the time and every exposure was guesswork.

He didn't do anymore colour processing until mid-1969, being his first year at Art College, when he processed an Ektachrome roll film in the Medway College colour darkroom. Then, later on that year, he started colour printing. During his second year at Art College he processed many Ektachrome sheet, roll and 35mm films in a three gallon tank line. The sheet film, (4 x 5inch), used the E3 process, and the roll and 35mm films used the E2 process. Separate developers were required for each, but the rest of the solutions were common to both processes.

He started making colour prints in 1969, using Kodak Ektacolor Commercial paper. He was a photographic colour printer in the 1970s, printing colour negatives mainly onto Agfacolor paper. He also had experience using about 10 types of Kodak paper, plus other makes, Gevacolor, Fuji, Paterson, Konica.

Michael now sets up and takes “Retro” fashion pictures, but prints them digitally.

   

This page last modified: 27th June 2017