|Kodak Black & White Printing Paper, Films and Chemistry - by Michael Talbert|
|Apart from the following notes relating to early Kodak black & white products, Michael Talbert has also provided a considerable amount of historical information on the early Kodak & Agfa colour printing processes. Some early Agfa black & white paper packaging (plus others) can be seen here. My thanks to Jack Milne in Australia for directing me to this site.|
|The images immediately below have been sent by Emmett Francois in Vermont, USA. They are scans from the January 1905 edition (Vol.VIII, No.1) of 'Camera & Darkroom Magazine', published monthly by The American Photographic Publishing Co; 361 Broadway, New York. The first image, left below, is the cover. The other three images are Eastman Kodak adverts which appeared in this edition.|
In the early 1970s Michael Talbert had worked as a black and white/colour printer/general studio assistant for a photographer who had used Kodak bromide papers since around the time of the 1947 paper codes changeover. He had a bookcase full of old Kodak paper boxes in which he stored his negatives, some of which had both codes printed on the labels. Thats what got him interested in the old codes for paper, and he decided to find out more.
Kodak VELOX paper was a very slow printing paper, producing a blue-black image, suitable for contact printing only, where the negative is placed in contact with the paper to produce a print of the same size. Kodak discontinued the manufacture of Velox paper in 1968. By way of example of its coding names, before & after 1947: Velox WVL 3 S = White Velvet Lustre, Hard, Single weight. Pre 1947: V V 3 = Velox Velvet Vigorous, single weight.
Kodak BROMIDE, BROMESKO
and ROYAL BROMESKO papers
were fast enlarging papers, suitable for use with any type of
black and white enlarger. They could also be used for contact
Bromesko produced a warm-black image. Its first
mention is in the British Journal Of Photography Almanac for
1938, within the Kodak Adverts. About 1940 it was available in
6 surfaces, and by 1947, when Kodak changed their coding
system (see below), it was available in Glossy, Velvet, Matt,
Rough Lustre, and Fine Lustre. Later there was a Cream base,
coded CFL 3D; a brownish red colour base, like a sepia toned
print. The paper was also made on White and Ivory (a yellowish
Kodesko is another paper Michael Talbert has found reference to. It was a warm toned paper manufactured by Kodak in the 1930s, before Bromesko. It was unusual in that it had a parchment-like quality and was semi-translucent. The 1933 Kodak Professional Catalogue states that prints could be mounted onto a light coloured backing paper. When the print was held over a light, it glowed, taking on the tones of the backing paper. Maybe that is where the name Bromesko originated.
Royal Bromesko paper was introduced in 1962 and discontinued in the late 1970s. It was an enlarging paper giving a warmer image tone by direct development in Kodak D-163 developer than Bromesko paper processed in the same developer. For maximum warmth, Kodak Royal Bromesko developer produced an almost brown and white image on Royal Bromesko paper. It had a slightly lower printing speed than Kodak Bromide or Bromesko papers. It could be handled under a Wratten Safelight filter Series OB.
Prior to 1947, Kodaks grading system and paper
nomenclature were a complete muddle !
By way of example of coding
names, before & after 1947: Bromesko CFL 2 D = Cream Fine
Lustre, Normal, Double weight. Pre-1947: 47 Z = Cream Lustre,
Medium, Double weight.
NIKKO is an early trade name for Kodak Glossy Bromide paper (in the U.K). It is uncertain when the name Nikko dates from, but it is listed under Bromide papers in a Kodak 1923 catalogue. It is believed the name is pre-WW1, if not earlier. For example; Nikko BG2 = Bromide Glossy Grade 2 (medium) single weight.
Contrast Grades for Kodak
Bromide papers, early 1940s
(as far as Michael Talbert can establish) were:
Contrast Grades after 1947. Kodak changed their coding system relating to paper grades, types of paper surfaces, for Bromide, Bromesko, and Velox papers in 1947. Nikko BG2 then became Bromide WSG 2S = White, Smooth ,Glossy, 2 (Normal Grade), Singleweight. The new coding system for Bromide, Bromesko and Velox papers stated Tint, Texture, Surface, Contrast Grade No. and Weight, in that order.
Extra Soft = Grade 0; Only
made in Velox Paper at this time.
In 1948-9 paper packing quantities were standardized to 10s, 25s, 50s and 100s (rather than by weight or in dozens or half-dozens of sheets) and Kodak changed their system so that all surfaces and grades matched for Bromesko, Bromide and Velox papers. The coding system was e.g. Bromide, White Velvet Lustre, Normal Double Weight, WVL 2D. The pre-1947 code was BV 2Z, Bromide Velvet Medium Double Weight (the letter Z was used to indicate Double Weight).
Introduced in 1962 (discontinued in the late 1970s) with Smooth Lustre and Fine Pearl surfaces with a choice of a white or ivory base in double weight only
Types of Royal Bromesko
Paper from 1962.
In July 1962, the paper was
initially sold as a Special Order item, and the minimum
order accepted was for 1000 square feet in area of
any one contrast grade and size.
White Fine Pearl (WFP) and Ivory Fine Pearl (IFP) surfaces additionally became obtainable during 1962 to 63, and the paper was no longer sold as Special Order. Sizes and quantities were listed in the UK Kodak Professional Catalogue for 1963 in the Bromesko paper section, from 3½ x 4½ inches to 16 x 20 inches, 10, 25 and 100 sheet packs, in the three contrast graded noted above in Double Weight base.
By way of a coding example: Ivory Fine Pearl, Normal, Double Weight, would be coded: IFP 2D.
Fine Pearl was a new surface in 1962. It had a matt surface with an extremely fine grain. Kodak recommended this surface as a good choice if much retouching had to be done to the print, as in portraits.
Ivory Smooth Lustre surface
(ISL) was initially introduced in the late 1950s as a Bromesko
paper. In 1959 it was for sale in mainly continental sizes.
Another surface listed under Bromesko paper in the early 1960s was White Fine Low Lustre. The author believes this surface was very similar or identical to Fine Pearl. Both surfaces are listed for sale in the Kodak Professional Catalogue for July 1964, Low Lustre as a Bromesko paper, Fine Pearl as a Royal Bromesko paper. A list of Kodak black and white printing papers dated October 1965, however, does not mention the Low Lustre paper.
Royal Bromesko surfaces
added in 1965.
By 1969 the Smooth Glossy and Fine Lustre surfaces had been discontinued along with the Ivory Smooth Lustre surface. A year or so later the Ivory Fine Pearl surface was no longer made leaving White Fine Pearl, WFP and White Smooth Lustre, WSL in Soft, Normal and Hard grades. Manufacture of Royal Bromesko paper was discontinued in the late 1970s.
The author purchased a box of Royal Bromesko paper, 6½"x8½", 100 sheets, in White Smooth Lustre surface, Grade 3, in 1968. (WSL 3D). The difference in image tone between Royal Bromesko and Bromesko papers was very noticeable, even when processed in the standard Kodak paper developer, D-163. The author found, when comparing prints for contrast and density, that the visual contrast decreased on Royal Bromesko because of the colour of the image compared to a similar print made from the same negative on Kodak Bromide paper. The blacks of the print turned brown-black and mid tones a light brown. He found Royal Bromesko paper difficult to use, and many people preferred a good black as reproduced on a Bromide print to a rather insipid brown black on a Royal Bromesko print.
Kodak Royal Bromesko Developer was obtainable in liquid form, to be diluted one part developer to nine parts water, to make a working solution for use with Royal Bromesko paper. Also, in powder form, Kodak Warm Tone Developer was available in the 1960s, the stock solution to be diluted one part developer to one part water for a medium warmth of tone.
Warm tones on Ilford Clorona paper were popular in the 1930s. The Ilford Manual for 1935 gives two print developers, ID-23 and ID-24, suitable for producing warm-black to sepia to red tones on Clorona paper. The Ilford Manual stated that Clorona paper required a negative of Fair contrast when brown-sepia to red tones were desired. As the tone of the print changed from brown-black to sepia, and finally to red, the visual contrast decreased, so that a negative of fairly high contrast usually gave the best results. This is exactly what the author found when using Royal Bromesko paper.
Kodak VELOX paper was a very slow 'Development' printing paper, producing a blue-black image, suitable for contact printing only, where the negative is placed in contact with the paper to produce a print of the same size. The negative to be printed was placed on top of the emulsion side of the paper and in contact with it. Special contact printing frames were made which held the negative and paper in close contact under a piece of glass. The exposure was made by holding the printing frame up to a bright tungsten light, or daylight, for a few seconds. The paper was then developed, fixed and washed to produce a contact print with a slightly bluish black image.
Velox Paper was first manufactured by Dr. L. H. Baekeland in 1894. It was a slow, silver chloride paper which could be handled before exposure even under weak electric light or yellow gaslight. In a photographic darkroom it could be handled under a bright yellow safelight. It later became known as Gaslight or Contact paper. In 1899 George Eastman of the Kodak company bought the Velox process from Dr.Baekeland, and started to manufacture Velox paper in the U.S.A.
Prior to 'Development' paper,
contact printing was carried out using paper that darkened naturally
when left exposed to daylight. Originally known as 'Albumen'
printing paper, it became commonly known as Printing Out Paper
The paper was exposed to daylight via a glass negative plate, the two being held in close contact within a contact printing frame, as already described above. Upper-most within the wooden contacting printing frame would be the frame's glass and beneath that was placed the glass negative plate. A sheet of Albumen paper, emulsion side in contact with the glass plate, came at the bottom of the frame and finally the wooden back of the printing frame was attached to hold the paper and negative plate firmly in contact under spring pressure. In the middle of the wooden back would be a hinge, so that part of the back could be opened to look at the image appearing on the P.O.P. without disturbing or releasing the pressure on the other part. Thus, if the image was still too light, the lifted half of the back could be hinged down again and the exposure continued without any risk of having disturbed the registration between the paper and the negative.
Unlike 'development' Contact paper, which was exposed only briefly to bright tungsten light or daylight, the printing frame with P.O.P was placed on a window sill facing the sun, or in strong daylight, for a significant length of time. Every quarter of an hour, or less in bright sunlight, the back of the frame was opened to check on the density of the image on the Albumen paper. When the print was judged to have the correct density, the paper was removed from the frame and placed in a bath of plain Hypo ("Fixing") solution. "Hypo" is an old fashioned term for Sodium Thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), originally known as sodium hyposulphate. In this bath of Hypo the silver that had not been exposed to daylight and therefore had not turned grey or black during the exposure, were chemically converted into soluble silver salts that could be washed out of the paper (hence, "fixing" the image). During this "Fixing process, the print usually became lighter in tone and so most pictures were exposed until slightly too dark, before being taken out of the printing frame and being placed in the Hypo.
After the paper was washed for half an hour to an hour, most prints were then toned in Sepia Toner, which gave a rich brown colour to the image and also made the image even more permanent. Sometimes the toning process was done before fixing. Contact Printing with Velox paper was much faster, more reliable, and the extra toning procedure was not required.
Despite the arrival into the market of many types of Bromide, Contact, and Chloro-bromide "development" papers, P.O.P remained on the market until the mid 1950s. One of the last was Kodak Solio, a glossy single weight paper which gave tones from purple to red. The paper could also be gold toned, in a bath of gold-sulphocyanide, and then fixed in a plain Hypo bath (Ref: Kodak Papers, booklet, 1949).
This very early packet of Velox paper is likely to have been manufactured by either The Nepera Chemical Company or by Eastman Kodak Company of Rochester, New York.
The Nepera Chemical Company was established by Leo Baekeland and Leonardi Jacobi in 1893 in Nepera Park, Yonkers, New York, for manufacturing Velox Paper. Velox Paper was one of the first photographic papers to require a chemical solution, (developer), to produce an image on the paper.
In 1899, Leo Baekeland met George Eastman, founder of the Kodak company, who paid him $1M for the Velox paper process. From then on, the Eastman Kodak Company, and later, Kodak Limited London, manufactured Velox Paper.
In the case of this packet, it is difficult to ascertain as to whether the paper was manufactured by the Nepera Chemical Company or the Eastman Kodak Company as both names appear on the packet. It may have been produced at the Nepera Chemical Company a few months after the Eastman Kodak takeover, possibly around 1899 to 1900.
The paper could be handled and worked in a yellow light, similar to the colour given by 'Towns Gas' burnt in gas mantles i.e. the Gaslight of the time. At that time, early 1900s, there was no Safe light filter made specially for Velox paper, though by the 1920s Kodak were producing a Wratten Series 00, a clear yellow, for slow lantern plates and gaslight papers. (Ref: Kodak Professional Catalogue, 1923.)
There were no Contrast Grades, such as Hard, Normal, Soft etc., although the Glossy Velox sealing label states Enameled for contrasty effects.
The green sealing label also states on the underside that You should use no other developers that those described in the enclosed directions. It also warns the user about lack of Bromide in the developer and oxidized developer giving greenish or brownish blacks in the print.
This second packet of Velox Paper is likely to be of later manufacture. It clearly states that it is now being made by Kodak in London, which tells us it is very probable that by this time Kodak had set up a production line for Velox paper in the U.K. It is strange that the Nepera Chemical Companys trade mark is still being stamped on the packet ! The price was 1s.3d, (=6 newpence) for 18 sheets. By 1923, the price had been held, but the paper was now sold in packets of 17 sheets for 1s (1 shilling=5 newpence).
Although the sealing label is missing, the packet contains paper of a Velvet surface, termed in those days as Art, or Semi-Matt. There is no back printing on the paper.
On the left hand side of the label on both packets it states 500 times quicker than Albumen, signifying how much shorter an exposure to light this 'development' paper required compared to the former Printing Out Paper (5seconds x 500 = 40minutes !)
Kodak made a Safelight filter specially for Velox paper, the Wratten Series OO. It was bright yellow, so much too bright for Kodak Bromide papers. Kodak Bromide papers were about 100 times faster than Velox paper and, although Bromide paper could be used for contact printing, Velox paper was useless for making enlargements (the exposure to enlarger illumination would have being too long). However, in the 1950s, certain types of Velox paper were manufactured specifically for making En-prints using enlarging equipment, such as Projection Velox paper, but the speed of the paper never matched Bromide paper.
Kodak Limited, London were still making Velox paper for contact printing in small sizes until the late 1960s. It was finally discontinued in 1968.
Four packets of Velox paper dating
from the 1920s.
In the early 1920s a Special
grade was available for Normal or Contrasty negatives. In 1923
it was sold as Special Portrait, a smooth matt surface.
The 1933 equivalent catalogue no longer lists Special Portrait or Royal Velox papers.
By 1926 an additional grade of MEDIUM was available and a Velox paper instruction sheet for 1926 suggests the medium grade was recommended for negatives of average contrast. SOFT grade paper was now recommended for negatives of strong contrast. In 1926, MEDIUM grade was available in Art and Glossy surfaces.
Alongside are shown three packets of Velox paper dating from the 1920s showing the new Medium grade in Glossy and also the back labels of the Semi-Matt surface paper; one of Medium grade (for "average negatives") and one in Vigorous grade (for "flat negatives").
VG-3 dates from the late 1930s or possibly the 1940s. VG-1 dates from the 1940s.
VG-1 = Soft contrast.
They are all single weight paper. The double weight code would be e.g. VG-2Z = Velox Glossy, (grade) 2, double weight.
Another grade is listed in
the 1933 Kodak Professional Photographic Apparatus and Materials
catalogue. Known as Contrast, this grade was recommended
for very flat, lifeless negatives.
In 1933, 17 sheets of Velox
single weight paper , as the two packets in the picture, would
have cost one shilling (5p).
In the picture above there
is a small packet of Velox developer which contains
two components a blue packet and a white packet. To make
up the developer the instructions state to shake the contents
of the blue packet into 4 ounces of cold water. When dissolved,
add the contents of the white packet.
A Velox paper instruction sheet from 1922, which was enclosed in every packet of paper, suggests the use of Velox developer, either by making up the formula from raw chemicals, or by obtaining the Kodak madeup chemicals. The Kodak 1923 catalogue lists Velox developer in liquid or powder form.
Velox Concentrated Developer is priced at 5 shillings (25p) per gallon for the liquid form, and a packet to make up 1 gallon from powder is the same price. A ½ gallon size to be made up from powder was 2 shillings and 9 pence (14p).
Both the liquid developer and the powder developer when made up, had to be further diluted with two to four times their volume to make the working developer solution. It is odd that three instruction sheets for Velox paper, dating from the 1920s and 1930s, give no times of development for Velox paper.
How to make good pictures, a Kodak book published in 1927, suggests 25 to 30 seconds for Medium and Vigorous grades of Velox paper, and 40 to 50 seconds for Soft and Special grades of Velox paper.
In 1969 the author developed Kodak Bromide paper in Velox powder developer. The developer gave the Bromide prints a slightly colder tone, tending towards a bluish black compared with a normal recommended Bromide paper developer, such as (in those days), Kodak D-163 developer (see below). The instruction sheet, dated 1961, from the tin of Velox developer that the author used, suggested 1 minute development time for Bromide papers at 68°F, and 40 to 90 seconds for Velox paper at the same temperature. The developer was made up as a stock solution to be diluted 1 : 1 with water to make a working solution..
The Kodak formula for D-158 is almost identical to the packaged version of Velox developer.
As far as Michael Talbert can ascertain, Velox developer was manufactured by Kodak (in the U.K.) up to 1969. A Kodak Professional and Graphic Arts catalogue for November 1969 lists Kodak Velox Developer Powder to make 80 fluid ounces at 5 shillings (25p). The developer is not listed in a Kodak (U.K.) Products price list for September 1970.
Kodak D-163 Developer
The developer was originally for use as a general purpose developer for films, glass plates, Bromide and Velox papers, and available in powder or liquid form. In later years it became the standard developer for Kodak Bromide, Velox, Bromesko and Royal Bromesko printing papers. It gave a neutral black to Kodak Bromide and Velox papers, a warm black to Bromesko paper and a pronounced warm black to Royal Bromesko paper.
The dilution for all Kodak
papers, to make a working solution, was normally one part concentrated
developer to three parts water.
D-163 could also be used for the rapid development of roll and sheet films, at three to four minutes at 68°F. The author recalls one or two students at the Art College he attended in the 1960s, developing certain high speed Kodak roll films in D-163 i.e. Tri-X Pan and Royal X Pan, for well over the recommended time, claiming fantastically high ASA (ISO) speeds as for use in available light photography. Unfortunately, the author never having had the experience of uprating film speed by this development technique, cannot vouch for these claims.
Kodak D-163 developer was replaced by the American Eastman Kodak Dektol in 1985, sold in liquid and powder form. Dektol had been on sale in America for many years and from 1985 was recommended for processing most UK Kodak black and white printing papers, and the developer became listed in the UK Kodak catalogues.
|More Kodak Black and White Developer Chemicals|
From left to right:
A D-76 film developer packet
dating from the 1970s.
D-76 developer for developing black and white negative films was invented by J.G.Capstaff of the Eastman Kodak company in 1926. It was one of the first film developers to give the finest grain the film was capable of without affecting the speed of the film being developed. There were at least ten variants of the formula, the most well known being D-76b and D-76d.
A formula for D-76 dating from 1937.
The developer was listed as D-76 ElonHydroquinoneBorax developer in the UK Kodak Professional and Industrial catalogue for 1940. Elon was the Kodak trade name for Metol. A packet of D-76 supplied as powder chemical components to make 20 fluid ounces of developer would have cost 2 shillings (10p) in 1940.
The packet illustrated above made 600ccs and cost 23p in 1973, including VAT.
The directions on the bottle label:
For Films and Plates: Use one
part of solution and three parts of water.
The bottle and the cardboard container it was packaged in date from the mid-1930s. The liquid Kodak Special developer is listed for sale in the Kodak UK catalogue Professional Photographic Apparatus and Materials for 1923 but only as a 1 gallon size. The equivalent catalogue for 1933 does not list any Special developer as liquid solution. In those early catalogues, the developer would have been made up to the D-157 formula.
As far as is known, an 8oz bottle of Special would have cost 1 shilling and 3 old pence (1s/3d) in 1940, just more than 6p.
Dilute 1+9 (1 of the concentrate
plus 9 of water) and develop 1½ - 2 minutes
Dektol was an American Eastman Kodak developer principally for developing black and white printing papers. As far as is known, it was introduced in the USA only, sometime in the late 1940s, as an improved version of the Eastman Kodak packaged D-72 developer.
An Eastman Kodak photographic catalogue for 1950 states the (then new) Dektol developer had four advantages over the old D-72.
greater print capacity.
Dektol was available from its introduction as a powder developer (developer solution made up from powder components) in the USA and was not sold in the UK until 1985 when Dektol replaced the well known D-163 developer. An additional liquid version was introduced at the same time (as the illustration above). Dektol developer made up from powder components was further diluted 1 + 2 with water to make a working solution.
In a Silverprint (a professional photographic dealer, based at Valentine Place, London, SE1 in 1997) catalogue for 19971998, Kodak D-163 liquid developer is listed in two quantities for sale alongside Dektol. A Kodak UK Products catalogue for 1999 gives only Dektol and Polymax developers for print processing. It is thought that the Silverprint people may have been making their own D-163 developer to the Kodak formula and offering it for sale. It is thought by some that D-163 developer produced a slightly warmer tone rendering in the print i.e. a slightly brownish colour to the blacks, compared to Dektol. Hence, both developers had their adherents and both were (1997-1998) listed for sale.
Apart from the choice of developer, much of the tone colour in a black and white print depended on the type of paper, the base colour, and the development time.
Packets of VV-3 Velox Velvet (Grade) 3 Vigorous and VG-3 Velox Glossy (Grade) 3 Vigorous.
The left hand packet of VV-3 dates from the 1940s, with Kodak printed in red. The right hand packet is slightly older and gives a good example of the paper being sold by weight, hence resulting in the odd quantity of 17 sheets in the packet !
Velvet had a slight surface texture with a very slight gloss finish. The vigorous grade was for printing with soft, low contrast negatives.
The Velox coding system before 1947 is believed to have been similar to the Kodak Bromide paper codes.
1947, VV-3 became known as Velox, White, Velvet, Lustre,
3 (hard grade) single weight. Code: WVL 3 S
It is not known if the Vigorous Grade (pre-1947) was the same as the contrast of the new Hard Grade (post-1947).
By way of example of its coding names, before & after 1947: Velox WVL 3 S = White Velvet Lustre, Hard, Single weight. Pre 1947: V V 3 = Velox Velvet Vigorous, single weight.
The Velvet surface
lasted until the early 1970s, and was then replaced by White,
Semi-Matt. Code: WSemi-M.
Velox WVL (Velvet), was replaced by White, Smooth, Lustre, (WSL), in the late 1950s. Smooth Lustre surface was devoid of any texture and had a shiny appearance, much like an unglazed glossy print. The surface was very similar, but not identical to, the later Kodak N surface, mainly used for colour printing papers and known as Lustre.
In the 1950s and early 1960s, Velox paper was also available in certain small continental sizes in Cream Smooth Glossy (CSG), singleweight, in as many as five contrast grades ranging from Extra Soft, (Grade 0) to Ultra Hard, (Grade 5). Oddly enough, the paper was not sold in Grade 4, Extra Hard.
WSL and CSG lasted, as best Michael knows, until 1963. Then only the White, Smooth, Glossy surface remained until the manufacture of Velox paper ceased in 1968.
For a time after 1947, most Kodak Bromide, Bromesko, and Velox papers carried labels with both the new codes and the old codes relating to the various surfaces. The picture alongside shows a Velox label of this type.
Velox WSG 1.S = white smooth
glossy (Grade) 1, Single Weight
Four boxes of Velox paper dating from the mid 1950s, showing four contrast grades from Soft, Grade 1, for high contrast negatives, to Extra Hard, Grade 4, for very soft negatives. The author used the Grade 4 paper, and remembers it gave acceptable prints from negatives which were so soft they were considered unprintable!
Kodak Bromide Paper packets,
BRW4-Z and BG-5
The exact date when this particular type of paper was first manufactured is uncertain, however the Kodak Professional catalogue for 1923 lists the paper as White, Royal, (rapid). The description is: a thick rough surface paper suitable for broad effects in black and white. It is not clear from the description in the catalogue if the paper was available in different grades of contrast at that time.
Kodak Bromide Paper BG-5
The packet illustrated is believed to date from the early 1940s. At that time, Kodak Glossy paper was known as Nikko. Glossy paper could be glazed on glass or metal, to give an almost mirror like surface.
In 1947, Nikko BG-5 became
Bromide Paper, White Smooth Glossy, Extra Hard, Single Weight.
Kodak Bromesko 67 Z
This label dates from the mid-1940s and shows the code for Bromesko Cream Lustre, tint and surface, contrast grade in Double Weight (Z).
In 1947, Cream Lustre became Cream Fine Lustre and Contrast became Grade 3 Hard, Double Weight. The new coding after 1947 was CFL 3D.
Kodak Bromesko CFL 1D
The label shows the new code
for Grade 1 (Soft).
The pre-1947 code for Medium
Grade was Bromesko 47Z.
Kodak Bromide enlarging
paper BRTF - 1 Z
The base of the paper was a yellowish brown, and gave the impression of a sepia toned print. Tinted and Cream had almost the same coloured base, although the Cream was slightly more red. The Tinted base was only suitable for certain subjects, such as photographs taken under interior room lighting, sunsets, portraiture. Cream base paper began to look old fashioned by the late-1960s and Kodak withdrew their cream base papers about 1967.
Kodak Bromide enlarging
paper BRIWF 2Z
This paper was available in
double weight only, in sheet sizes up to 20 x 24 inches,
and in bulk postcards.
Manufacture ceased after 1947, but the Snow White Fine (grain) and the Tinted Fine (grain) tints and surfaces were obtainable in certain sheet sizes for a few years after 1947. Ivory White was described as a paper ..between a cream and a white, and imparts just that warmth of tone to the average enlargement that is sometimes lacking in papers with a mauve-white base.
The Kodak glossy bromide paper
manufactured pre-1947, known as Nikko paper, had
a mauve-white base.
Three labels from packets of Kodak Bromide paper dating from the late 1940s.
The top label, BG-2, is Bromide Glossy (2), Medium contrast, single weight, known after 1947 as WSG 2S. (White Smooth Glossy, Normal, single weight).
The middle label, BV-2, is Bromide Velvet (2), Medium contrast, single weight, known after 1947 as WVL 2S. (White Velvet Lustre, Normal, single weight).
This label has been altered from a label denoting Double weight paper, as the Z and Double weight has been crossed out. This is typical of paper manufactured during the change over period of labeling and quantities. The quantity rate for photographic paper was changed from multiples of dozens to multiples of 10s during the late 1940s and on the front of this packet 6 has been crossed out with 10 printed alongside.
The bottom label, BBS-2, is Bromide Black Smooth, (2), Medium contrast, single weight, known after 1947 as WSM 2S, (White Smooth Matt, Normal, single weight).
Below (scroll down six images) is a photograph of a later label, post 1947, of this surface in Soft grade, WSM 1S.
As best can be determined, Kodak Crayon Black Bromide paper was introduced in 1940 in Smooth, Natural, and Rough surfaces.
The British Journal of Photography Almanac for 1941 describes the smooth surface as An excellent material for medium sized prints which are to be handled a good deal.
Pre-1940, the paper was known as Platino Matt Smooth. In 1947, the name of the paper was changed to White Smooth Matt, and was available on a single or double weight base in three contrast grades. Bromide White Smooth Matt and Bromide White Velvet Lustre were replaced by a new surface, White Semi-Matt, (WSemiM), in 1971.
Kodak Bromide Paper BRTF2-Z
This paper is likely to date from 1947 until the early 1950s.
After 1947, most Kodak printing papers were packed in quantities of 10, 25, 50, and 100 sheets in boxes or packets. Before this time, small sizes of paper were graded by weight and larger sizes were packed in multiples of a dozen.
The paper has an extremely fine grain matt surface with a yellow base. Medium grade was for printing with normal contrast negatives.
The image alongside is the front of the BRTF-2Z packet shown above.
The original packaging quantity and size have been over-printed.
The packet was originally intended to hold 6 sheets of 11½" x 8½" paper at the pre-1947 quantity of ½ dozen (i.e 6) sheets. It was then changed at some point to a different size, 10" x 8", with the new 10 sheet quantity rating.
This particular type of Bromide paper was sold in the late 1940s in boxes and packets printed with the red and black vertical line design. The sealing label and paper variety code were never changed to the new coding system (see picture, below, of Bromide box coded BRSWF2-Z.)
After 1940 (Taken from the British Journal Photographic
Michael Talbert comments: "What a mix up of Bromide papers! No wonder Kodak wanted to introduce a new coding system for their Bromide papers in 1947!"
Bromide Royal Paper from
All other surfaces, base tints, and weights were known as Kodak Bromide,
As far as is known, by 1952 the word Royal had gone from the label and the Rough Lustre surface was included in Kodaks Bromesko range of papers only, as with the middle label; WRL 3.D.
From 1952, all surfaces, base tints and weights of Bromide paper were labeled Kodak Bromide, see bottom label, WFL 1.D.
Packets and boxes of Bromide Royal paper with the post-1947 coding are now extremely rare.
Below is shown the rear label of the Bromide Royal IRL 1.D, advising that the paper was for hard contrast negatives.
of Bromesko IFL3D and Bromide IFL2D
The brown/grey boxes were gradually replaced by yellow boxes (right hand side image) during the 1950s.
The red and black vertical line design dates from 1947, although the same design was already being printed onto American Eastman Kodak black and white photographic paper boxes prior to 1947. The vertical line design lasted until the end of the 1950s. The wording was changed underneath Open in Photographic Darkroom on the later packaging dating from the late 1950s.
The Bromide IFL2D box dates from approximately 1953 to 1958. Michael believes 1953 was the year that Kodak London introduced the yellow packaging for their black and white printing papers. The red and black vertical line design was changed to two offset rectangles, Kodak and Photographic Paper, in 1959 (see picture below).
In the 1950s and 1960s, Kodak Bromide paper was generally made with a white base. The Fine Lustre surface was the only surface in the Bromide range made with an Ivory tinted base. By 1969, the Ivory tinted paper was no longer sold in the Bromide range of papers, although Kodak continued to make Bromesko Ivory Fine Lustre paper until the mid 1970s.
for 21st January 1953.
of Bromesko WSG3S and Bromide BRSWF2Z
The Kodak Bromide paper 100 sheet box has a sealing label which was in use prior to 1947, although the box dates from 1947 onwards. In that year Kodak London introduced a new coding system for their Bromide, Bromesko and Velox papers stating Tint, Texture, Surface, Contrast Grade No. and Weight, in that order.
In the Bromide range of printing papers at least 10 different surfaces and tints were labeled with the new codes. Another two, not included in the 10, were to keep their old codes and the boxes and packets were sealed with the previous pre-1947 labels such as shown on this box.
BRSWF 2Z translates
as Bromide, Royal, Snow, White, Fine (grain), 2 (grade),
Z (Double Weight).
In July 1953, Harringay Photographic Supplies, surplus photo material dealers, had a half page 'spread' in Amateur Photographer magazine offering for sale Kodak Royal Bromide papers in both the above surfaces. Four paper sheet sizes, plus rolls, were listed at vastly reduced prices. It is likely that the paper would have been out of date by 1953.
Picture of sealing labels
of various Bromide and Bromesko papers.
The Bromide box at the top states the new code as WSM1S White Smooth Matt, 1 (grade) S (Single Weight). The label shows that, pre 1947, it was known as - Bromide Crayon Black, Soft, Single Weight. The old code gives it as BBS 1 - Bromide Black Smooth 1 (grade).
The Smooth is added to differentiate this particular surface between Crayon Black Natural and Crayon Black Rough, two surfaces of Bromide paper sold pre-1947.
The Bromesko papers prior to 1947 were coded by numbers.
44 was Glossy Medium Grade; 64 was Glossy Contrast Grade. If the paper had been soft, (Grade 1 ), the code would have been 24. The first number denoted the Grade, and the second number denoted the surface/tint. The Z denoted Double Weight.
Pre-1947, Bromesko Cream Lustre,
Soft, Double Weight had the code 27 Z
The middle box with the early type of sealing label dates from 1959 to approximately 1961. The Postcard boxes of Bromesko paper (left and right hand sides) with the new design of sealing label date from 1961 to 1965.
The left hand box contained Bromesko paper with a Cream paper base colour. Cream Fine Lustre, Normal, Doubleweight.
Cream was of a reddish brown colour, and gave a very warm toned print with a brown black. Cream based paper was most suitable for portraits and summer landscapes. Kodak (U.K.) discontinued making Cream base paper in 1967.
Soft Grade 1 and Extra Soft Grade 0 of Kodak
In the 1930s, an Extra Soft, or 'Grade 0', was available in Kodak Velox paper in two surfaces, Glossy and Art = semi-matt, in single and double weight paper. In 1947, Glossy became White Smooth Glossy, and Art became White Velvet Lustre, in single weight only, coded WSG 0S and WVL 0S.
In 1940, Kodak Press Bromide paper was listed in the Kodak catalogue as having five grades of contrast = Soft, Normal, Medium, Contrast and Extra Contrast. Press Bromide paper was designed for processing and printing under rush conditions, and was described as having 'exceptional latitude'. From 1947, when Kodak in the UK changed their paper grading system, Press Bromide paper continued to be made in five contrast grades, but now the previous Soft Grade became Extra Soft = Grade 0, Normal became Soft = Grade 1 and Medium became Normal = Grade 2. This was a more logical contrast range description, running from 0 = Extra Soft to 4 = Extra Hard in a glossy surface only, coded WSG 0S to WSG 4S, meaning White Smooth Glossy, contrast grade number, Single Weight.
By the mid 1950s, the regular Kodak Bromide paper was being sold in the same five contrast grade range in the glossy surface only.
The Grade 1 = Soft grade was manufactured in most surfaces and weights of Kodak Bromide, Bromesko, Royal Bromesko, and Velox papers, but Grade 0 = Extra Soft was confined to Bromide Glossy, mainly in single weight, and then only made available in certain sizes and quantities. Manufacture of Kodak Bromide paper in all grades ceased in 1982 (replaced by Veribrom and Kodabrome II papers), and the Extra Soft grade was obtainable in five paper sizes, single and double weights, up until the withdrawal of the paper.
Two boxes of Kodak Bromide paper, dating from the early 1970s.
WSG 0D = White Smooth Glossy, Grade 0 Extra Soft, Double
WSemiM-1D = White Semi Matt, Grade 1 Soft, Double
WSemi-M recorded fine detail well, and prints could be retouched easily. The surface was slightly more matt than the N lustre surface in Kodak's range of colour printing papers. The paper was also available in single weight.
|Below is shown front and back of an advertising leaflet for a new grade of extra soft contrast Bromide paper, Grade 0. The leaflet is believed to date to March 1956.|
Bromide Transferotype Paper
a concentrated liquid developer.
Print developers designed for use with chloro-bromide papers, or warm tone papers, such as Kodak Bromesko, were not recommended.
It was essential to use a non-hardening
fixer with Transferotype.
Prints were washed after fixing
for about 30 minutes, and could be transferred immediately or
dried for future use. Heat drying was not recommended.
Wood, cloth, pottery, metal, or interior plaster board were suitable surfaces for receiving the photographic image printed on the Transferotype paper. Translucent or transparent surfaces also gave good results, but about four times the normal print exposure was necessary before transferring onto a transparent surface. This was required to give enough density to the print when light was projected through the image as opposed to light reflected from the image.
Transfering the Image
from Paper to Support
The support, with its
gelatine coating, was then hardened in a Chrome Alum hardening
bath for about 5 minutes, then washed for 10 minutes
After drying, the print and its support were soaked in water and squeegeed together with a roller face to face, the front of the print facing the support. The pack was kept under pressure between photographic blotting paper for at least an hour.
To complete the transfer, the print and its intended support were immersed in water at a temperature of 100°F to 105°F until the print base, the paper which the photographic emulsion was coated onto in the first place, came away from the intended support.
For transfer onto a hard surface, such as glass to make a black and white transparency, a higher temperature at 130°F to 160°F was necessary.
After transfer, the transferred print on its new support backing, were treated in a Hardening Bath of 2% Chrome Alum and washed for a few minutes before drying.
Since the front surface of
the print is placed onto the front surface of the support, the
back of the print is then facing you. Consequently, the resulting
transferred image is reversed, left to right. To avoid this,
the negative had to be placed emulsion side up in the enlarger
negative carrier, so as to make a reversed Transferotype print.
After it was transferred, of course, it appeared correct.
History of Kodak Bromide
1923Transferotype paper made in Normal and Contrast grades, possibly sold in the same sizes as single weight Kodak Bromide paper.
1933Transferotype paper listed in Kodaks 1933 catalogue in Soft grade only. Prices and sizes as single weight Bromide paper.
paper made in 6½ x 4¾ inches to
15 x 12 inches in 6 sheet and 25 sheet
packets. Possibly in a Medium contrast grade but the grade was
not stated. Other sizes could be supplied to special order. Kodak
paper made in Normal contrast only. 8 x 10 inch size
listed, 10 sheet packets. Kodak November 1957 catalogue.
It is possible that the paper
was discontinued in the late 1960s, as it is not listed in the
Kodak Professional catalogue for 1969.
Kodak suitable safelight filters:
1940s and 1950s Wratten Series OA in the 1940s; this became Wratten Series OB from 1953 and was recommended for all Kodak safelamps.
Note the original price of this 10sheets packet = 7/2 = 7s & 2d = 36p (new pence).
D-170 was an Amidol type of print developer, made up to the Kodak formula.
D-170 was never sold as a Kodak packaged product.
Bromide Finisher Paper
The paper sample taken from the packet shows a surface with slight reflectance and very slight roughness. It could be described as a semi-matt surface with a very slight fine grain appearance.
According to the 1933 Kodak UK catalogue, the paper was obtainable in single weight and double weight thicknesses, in soft, medium, and contrast grades.
Apparently it was first marketed in the early 1930s, certainly by 1933, but was no longer manufactured after 1947, with no equivalent surface within Kodak's new range of papers introduced in 1947.
'Tooth' in re-touching terms refers to the roughness of the paper surface. This surface roughness gives something for the re-touching medium to penetrate into and 'key' onto. A print made on ordinary glossy paper would be difficult to re-touch as the re-touching medium, whether pencil, crayon, or liquid colourant (ink or dye) applied by brush, would leave an obvious surface mark in the case of pencil or crayon, and would likely smear in the case of liquid retouching. The 'tooth' surface enabled the re-touching medium to penetrate into the surface and be far less visually obvious.
Above is shown a 100 sheet box of Finisher paper, of postcard size, 3½ x 5½ inches,
medium grade and double weight.
There is no code printed on the label but it could be assumed to be BF-2Z (Z = double weight).
medium grade in single weight. Code BF-2, Bromide Finisher grade 2.
Possible price is two shillings and sixpence (2s/6d = 22½p).
|Below is shown a very early leaflet for Royal Bromesko paper dating from August 1962. Initially introduced in a "Smooth Lustre" surfaces (White and Ivory), another surface, "Fine Pearl", was available by early 1963.|
Boxes and Packet of Royal Bromesko paper
Left: WSL 3D. This was the box which I purchased in 1968, described above. The label is typical of the type used from about 1965 to 1971.
At back: WSL 2D. This packet dates from 1962 to 63. and is very likely to be the first type of labeling for Royal Bromesko paper.
Front: WFP 3D. This box dates from the mid 1970s. 24x30.5 cms was approximately 9½x12inches. By the mid-1970s, the 9½x12inch size was replaced by the well known 10x12inch size of printing paper.
Back labels of above Boxes and Packet
It is interesting to note that the oldest label, WSL 2D, gives no information on the Kodak developers recommended for use with the paper, unlike the equivalent labels on Kodak Bromide, Bromesko, and Velox packets at that time. The developers to be used with the papers were normally printed between the safelight to be used and the surface translated into French.
This type of label lasted until about 1965.
Fine Grain Positive film was intended for making positive black and white transparencies from 35 mm negatives. It was blue sensitive (sensitive to blue and white light only) and was approximately the same speed as a Kodak black and white printing paper. The film could be handled in a darkroom under the same lighting conditions as black and white printing papers i.e. Kodak safelight filters OA, OC and the earlier OB filter. A red safelight, such as Kodak 1A, could also be used for increased safety. When processed, the film base appeared completely clear, as there was no anti-halation backing or base tint.
35mm negatives were usually contact printed onto this film, and the length of exposure was similar to contact exposure onto a Kodak enlarging paper.
The tins of 35mm film contained no instruction leaflets, but the instruction sheets for Kodak D-163 Developer listed Fine Grain Positive Film development times. D-163 was a general purpose black and white print developer for processing Kodak enlarging papers. For Fine Grain Positive Film, the stock solution was diluted 1 part developer with 3 parts water, and the film developed for 1½ to 2 minutes at about 68°F (20°C). Development times varied from 2½ minutes at 64°F (18°C), to 60 seconds at 75°F (24°C). Although Kodak recommended their D-163 developer, any enlarging paper developer could be used successfully with the film.
In the 1960s to 70s, the film was sold in the UK in 5 and 17 metre lengths. In the USA, the 35mm film was obtainable in 100 foot tins, and a sheet film version was available in various sizes, 4 x 5 inches to 11 x 14 inches (1972).
The author purchased a 5 metre tin of Fine Grain Positive Film in late 1966 with the intention of making some black and white transparencies from 35mm negatives. The film was processed in a Johnson Print developer, possibly Johnson Bromide, or Johnson Con-Sol. Most of the transparencies were rather soft, and due to lack of experience in those days, I never tried processing the film in a more energetic developer, such as Kodak D-11 or Kodak D-8. The author had more success when using the film to make black and white internegatives from colour transparencies, and copying black and white photographs. As the film was blue sensitive, the tonal rendering of the prints made from the internegatives was, in theory, wrong, but in practise, this made little difference to the quality of the prints.
A negative cine film in 35mm or 16mm format, such as Kodak Super X film, was exposed in a cine camera and then processed to yield a negative image. A positive print from the negative film was made by printing onto a blue sensitive film resulting in a positive print suitable for projection. The usual method was to make a positive print from all of the material exposed in the camera, edit this print, and then edit the original negative to match precisely to the already edited print. The edited negative was used to make as many copies of the film as needed.
A better method was to print the edited positive onto the blue sensitive positive film to make a duplicate negative. This edited duplicate negative was used to make any number of prints, printing the duplicate negative onto the positive film. Printing from a duplicate negative protected the irreplaceable original negative from damage by careless handling. Another advantage of this method was any number of duplicate negatives could be made.
of film were manufactured
by Kodak in the 1930s for printing and duplicating purposes.
It was likely that Fine Grain Duplicating Negative 1203 was sensitive to all colours (panchromatic), because colour filters could be used to change the tonal rendering of scenes when making duplicate negatives.
These motion picture films were intended to be sold to motion picture film processing laboratories in lengths of up to 2000 feet. They were not available for sale to the amateur photographer.
Sometime during the 1940s, Kodak Positive Film was made available to Film Strip Producers. Film strips were transparencies projected with a slide projector, only instead of individual transparencies, all the pictures were printed onto a short strip of film which could be wound through the projector to show one picture after another. They were not motion pictures of any kind. Kodak Positive Film was most likely Positive Film 1301, sold in short lengths.
Film Strip Production is described at length in an article printed in the British Journal Photographic Almanac for 1949, see Film Strip Production by the Amateur Photographer, by M.L. Haselgrove. Mr. Haselgrove mentions that Positive stock, on the other hand, is rather like a Bromide paper emulsion, being primarily blue sensitive and so is safely handled in the light from a bromide safelight. The base is clear, no anti-halation dye being used, and resolving power is fairly good.
The film described is most likely 35mm Kodak Safety Positive. This film became Kodak Fine Grain Positive Safety Film by 1954.
Kodak Fine Grain Positive Film was listed in the Kodak Professional Catalogue for February 1960, and was sold in 5 metre and 17 metre lengths in 35mm format. It was priced to sell at about two thirds of the cost of camera films of the same length, such as Plus-X or Tri-X.
In 1979, Kodak in the UK was importing Eastman Fine Grain Release Positive Film 5302. This was sold in 35mm format in 100 foot lengths and replaced the UK product viz: Fine Grain Positive Film.
The 5302 was described in the US Eastman Kodak catalogue for 1979 as a "Black and White Positive print film for general black and white release printing.
Black and white release printing meant that the film was mainly intended for use to make positive prints from film taken in motion picture cameras. Exactly the same film was included in the black and white section of the Kodak Professional Product Profile catalogue of 1999.
The film was taken off the market between 2000 and 2002 as there is no mention in the equivalent Kodak catalogue for 2003.
Panatomic-X and Super-XX were introduced as new 35mm films in 1938, along with Plus-X. By 1940, Super-XX and Panatomic-X were also available as roll films, but Plus-X roll film did not arrive in the UK until 1951.
Tri-X sheet film was introduced in 1939 but was not made in any other format until 1955, when it became available as 35mm, 120, 127, 620, and 828. Its not listed in the 1954 Kodak UK catalogue but Super-Panchro Press sheet film is. Super-Panchro Press sheet film gave way to Panchro-Royal sheet film in 1955.
The situation in the USA is believed was much the same as in the UK, except for Plus-X roll film which was definitely available in the US in 1945 but not available in the UK until 1951.
In 1952, in the USA, there was Verichrome, Plus-X, and Super-XX roll films, but no Tri-X, which was still sheet film only. There was a glass plate Tri-X in the US but its believed that came later.
In the USA in 1960, Plus-X Pan Professional film was available in 120 and 620 roll films, but you had to buy a minimum quantity of 25 rolls at a time.
Kodak revamped Plus-X roll film in late 1963 giving it Professional status as Plus X Pan Professional Film. You had to buy multiple rolls at a time, not single rolls, and 120 only. It was an excellent film, virtually grainless, enlargements were very sharp.
to Estar Thick Base for Black & White Sheet Films in the
Kodak had tried coating the emulsions of certain Graphic Arts sheet films onto a more shrink resistance plastic than the tri-acetate base before 1966. Since the 1950s, early Kodalith Ortho films, such as Kodalith Ortho P.B. type 3 film were made by coating the emulsions onto a polystyrene base (P.B). The film is described as having remarkable dimensional stability for all jobs demanding size holding and exact register. The film was available in 1960 in 0.005 inch and 0.010 inch base thicknesses. By mid-1961 the emulsions of several Kodalith films plus others were being coated onto a polyester base, Kodak trade mark Estar.
The first two general purpose sheet films to change to a polyester thick base were Plus-X Pan and Panchro Royal films. Kodaks trade mark Estar for the new base support was printed next to the film title on the labels see above: picture of 'Plus-X Pan film box, develop before date of April 1968' for one of the earliest examples. For most general purpose sheet films, the new polyester base was 0.007 inches thick, slightly thinner than the old tri-acetate base at 0.008 inch.
Several of the Graphic Arts films were obtainable with much thinner bases than 0.007 inches. The base supports of Royal-X Pan and Kodak Process films were changed to polyester later in 1966. For Estar base sheet films, Kodak changed the first digit of the film number from 6 to 4 for most of their general purpose films. Plus-X Pan became 4147 instead of 6147, Panchro Royal became 4141 instead of 6141.
|Professional Plus-X and Tri-X roll films, packs of 10|
|Super XX Sheet Film in the UK|
Super XX sheet film was introduced in 1940 as a very fast panchromatic film with grain fine enough to permit a reasonable degree of enlargement without showing objectionable grain size on the print. The film gave a good reproduction of colour rendering in black and white tones and was not unduly sensitized to red light. It was particulary useful as a sheet film for portraiture in the studio. The film speed (in 1940) varied slightly according to the developer used to process the film, though only by two thirds of a stop.
In D-76 developer: 32 Kodak speed, approx. 125 ASA (ISO). Fine Grain.
In a general purpose developer, DK-50, DK60a: 31 Kodak speed, approx. 100 ASA (ISO). Medium Grain.
In DK-20 developer: 30 Kodak
speed, approx. 80 ASA (ISO). Finest Grain, similar to Kodak
Microdol, but was a silver solvent type of developer.
In 1954 Kodak described the film in their catalogues as having soft gradation, great exposure latitude and with a very long exposure scale. Super XX sheet film was the recommended film for making colour separation negatives, either by photographing the subject directly, or by making the negatives from a colour transparency when the photographer wanted to obtain colour prints by the Dye Transfer process.
The speed of the film was given as 31 Kodak speed, 100 ASA (ISO) for daylight exposures, or 29 Kodak speed, 64 ASA (ISO) for exposing under tungsten lighting.
The 1954 Kodak catalogue also offered Super Panchro Press sheet film for sale. This sheet film was very similar to Super XX (same speed), but was stated to possess a higher contrast with shorter development times, about two thirds of Super XX development times. Super Panchro Press sheet film was replaced by Panchro Royal sheet film in 1955.
By 1956 the speed of Super XX had increased to 125 ASA (ISO) for daylight, 100 for tungsten. Then, in 1961, Kodak increased the film speeds of most of their black and white films by removing the previous exposure Safety Factor. This effectively doubled the speed although the films themselves did not change. The Kodak 1961 UK catalogues rated Super XX sheet film at 200 ASA (ISO) for daylight and tungsten lighting.
The film was re-named Super XX Panchromatic in 1962 and remained on the UK market until 1967.
Kodak Separation Negative Film replaced Super XX as the recommended film for separation negatives for the Dye Transfer process.
The only other Kodak UK film named Super XX in 1967 was Super XX Aero film which lasted until 1971, then replaced by Plus X Aerographic film 2648.
In 1973, Kodak UK introduced Double X Aerographic film. Eastman Kodak at Rochester, USA, continued to manufacture Super XX Pan sheet film coated onto an Estar thick base.
|Verichrome, Plus-X Pan Professional and Tri-X Pan Roll Films|
Michael Talbert started making colour prints in 1969, using Kodak Ektacolor Commercial paper. He was a photographic colour printer in the 1970s, printing colour negatives mainly onto Agfacolor paper. He also had experience using about 10 types of Kodak paper, plus other makes, Gevacolor, Fuji, Paterson, Konica.
Michael now sets up and takes Retro fashion pictures, but prints them digitally.